Authors:Y. Uchiyama, K. Ito, H. Li, Y. Ujihara, and Y. Jean
The variations of size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes generated in the network of molecular chains of gelatin at the sol-gel transition were studied by means of the positron annihilation lifetime technique. Although variation in average free-volume radius was not recognized, a variation of free-volume content was observed at the sol-gel transition point of gelatin with an addition of saccharose.
Differences of size, content and size distribution of free volumes in linear branched and three-armed polystyrenes, synthesized by radical and anionic processes, were observed by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. The temperature dependence of an average free volume radius was quite similar among polystyrenes of different architectures and molecular weight distributions. The free volume radius increased with temperature, from 0.27 nm (T:60 K) to 0.29 nm (T:260 K) and 0.30 nm (Tg:363 K), then to 0.35 nm (423 K), showing turning at and transition temperature. The free volume content decreased from 60 K to 220 K to 300 K showing peculiar minimum at 220 K to 300 K depending on the molecular shape, increased above 320 K, upto 340 to 360 K. The free volume contents decreased with an increase of molecular weight and by an addition of oligomer or plasticiser, suggesting differences in relaxation time or molecular motion between the edge and middle portions of molecular chain and filling effect of smaller molecules in free volumes, respectively. The apparent free volume fraction showed clear variations atT andTg. Size distribution of free volumes suggested more complicated behavior of free volume upon the molecular relaxations and filling effect.
A detail study of distribution, host range, and seasonal pattern of western flower thrips (WFT),
(Pergande), in Yunnan Province was conducted in 2004–2006. The pest is distributed throughout the province and was found in 22 out of 25 widely spaced locations surveyed. WFT was found feeding on 45 species of vegetables, ornamentals, and weeds in the province. Seasonal pattern of WFT on vegetables planted in open field and inside greenhouses was similar and, with exception of minor local differences, did not differ from information generated elsewhere. These findings may provide some useful data for the management of this and possibly other thrips pests in Yunnan.
Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis
diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results
show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83
to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference
between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.
Authors:Y. Wakabayashi, K. Ito, H. Li, Y. Ujihira, H. Hashimoto, H. Matsui, A. Chiba, and Y. Jean
Positron annihilation lifetime measurement was applied to study the sol-gel transition of anionic polysaccharide aqueous solutions in terms of free-volume parameters the size, intensity, and size distribution of free volumes of the gelation of K-formk-carrageenan solutions as a function of temperature. Slight variations of free volume size and intensity against temperature were observed near 295 K. The correlation of free-volume data with other physical properties vibrational spectra (IR and Raman), conductivity, SAXS, elastic measurement, differential scanning calorimetry were investigated to understand the mechanism of sol-gel transition of carrageenan.
This work describes the induction, purification and partial biochemical characterizations of an antimicrobial protein from the housefly larvae induced by ultrasonic wave. It has been purified to apparent homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by Sephadex G-75, Bio-gel P6 gel filtration, and CM-Sepharose Fast Flow cation exchange chromatography. The protein is a cationic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 16315 Da determined by no-denaturing electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE, respectively. Biochemical profile assays show that this protein has good thermal stability, and repeatedly frozen and defrosted durability. The optimum pH for antimicrobial activity is around pH5. The antimicrobial range of the protein includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi. Results of the membrane permeability assays suggest that the probable mode of action of this protein is membrane-disrupting mechanism.
Authors:Y. Li, H. Xingen, L. Ruisen, and X. Guiying
Enthalpies of dilution of aqueous L-serine, pyridine and methylpyridine solutions and their enthalpies of mixing have been determined by a mixing-flow microcalorimeter
at 298.15 K. The data have been analyzed in terms of McMillan-Mayer formalism to fit to virial polynomials from which the
heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients, hxy, betweenL-serine and pyridine and methylpyridine isomers have been evaluated. The results obtained in the present paper are compared
with those reported in the earlier paper about glycine and L-alanine in the same organic solvent aqueous solutions, giving a global insight of the interaction mechanism between the a-amino
acids and pyridine and methylpyridine from the point of view of solute-solute interactions and substituent effects of methyl
groups introduced into the pyridine ring.
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Authors:H. Li, Y. Ujihira, S. Tanaka, T. Yamashita, and K. Horie
Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of PMMA, PEMA, PiPMA, PnPMA and PnBMA were performed in the temperature range between 15 and 300 K, where , and relaxational transitions occur for these polyalkylmethacrylates. The variations of free volume size and content calculated from the longest lifetime component against temperature are correlated to the results obtained by dielectric, viscoelastic and dynamic mechanical relaxation data of the polymers. The variations of free volume sizes and contents, apparent free volume fraction and size distribution of the polyalkylmethacrylates are well correlated with the rotational transitions of side chains. The location of free volumes, in which positronium annihilates can be estimated near the vicinity of alkyl groups bound to oxygen atom of side ester chains.