AP/HTPB based composite
propellants with additives such as ammonium oxalate (AO), mixture of ammonium
oxalate and strontium carbonate (SC) was investigated by burning rate, TG-DTG
and FTIR experiments. The results show that the burning rates of these propellants
are decreased significantly. TG-DTG experiments indicate that decomposition
temperatures of AP with these additives are increased. Furthermore, the activation
energy of the decomposition reaction of AP is also increased in the presence
of AO or AO/SC. These results show that AO or AO/SC restrains the decomposition
of AP. The burning rates of these propellants are decreased. The burning rate
temperature sensitivity of AP/HTPB based propellants is reduced significantly
by the addition of AO or AO/SC. But the effect of AO is less than that of
AO/SC. AO/SC is better effect to reduce temperature sensitivity and at the
same time, to reduce pressure exponent. The reduced heat release at the burning
surface of AP/HTPB/AO is responsible for the reduced temperature sensitivity.
Synergetic action is probably produced between AO and SC within AP/HTPB based
propellants in the pressure range tested. This synergetic effect causes the
heat release to reduce and the burning surface temperature to increase. Moreover,
it makes the net exothermal reaction of condensed phase become little dependent
on T0. Thus, the
burning rate temperature sensitivity is reduced.
Authors:H. J. Ding, Y. N. Niu, Y. B. Xu, W. F. Yang, S. G. Yuan, Z. Qin, and X. H. Zhou
extraction of protactinium with Aliquat 336 (methyl-tri-caprylyl ammonium
chloride) in toluene, cyclohexane and chloroform from HCl, HNO3, H2SO4,
HClO4, HF and mixed HCl-HF media was investigated by radioactive
tracer technique. Distribution ratios of protactinium between the aqueous
solution and the organic phase were determined as a function of shaking time,
concentrations of acid in aqueous solution phase, extractant concentration and
type of diluents in the organic phase. Aliquat 336 can almost quantitatively
extract protactinium from strong HCl solution. At the same time, small amounts
of HF in HCl solutions have a strong effect on Pa distribution.
Authors:S. Tang, L. Li, Q.Y. Zhou, W.Z. Liu, H.X. Zhang, W. Z. Chen, and Y.F. Ding
Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones that play important roles in diverse aspects during plant growth and development. A series of GA synthesis and metabolism genes have been reported or proved to have essential functions in different plant species, while a small number of GA 2-oxidase genes have been cloned or reported in wheat. Previous studies have provided some important findings on the process of GA biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in its related pathways. These may facilitate understanding of the complicated process underlying GA synthesis and metabolism in wheat. In this study, GA 2-oxidase genes TaGA2ox1-1, TaGA2ox1-2, TaGA2ox1-3, TaGA2ox1-4, TaGA2ox1-5, and TaGA2ox1-6 were identified and further overexpressed in rice plants to investigate their functions in GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway. Results showed overexpression of GA 2-oxidase genes in rice disrupted the GA metabolic pathways and induced catalytic responses and regulated other GA biosynthesis and signaling pathway genes, which further leading to GA signaling disorders and diversity in phenotypic changes in rice plants.
Authors:A. Ding, F. Cui, J. Li, C. Zhao, L. Wang, X. Qi, Y. Bao, X. Li, and H. Wang
Grain yield (GY) and yield components (YC) were investigated using two F8: 9 RILs, comprising 229 and 485 lines, respectively. A conditional analysis was conducted to generate conditional values for GY independent of each YC. Then both unconditional and conditional values were analyzed to map QTLs with additive effect. In both RILs, up to 23 unconditional and conditional QTLs were detected. However, only two QTLs were identified repeatedly among environments. All QTLs, except for 4 detected in unconditional mapping, were also identified as conditional QTLs, whereas a number of QTLs were additionally detected in conditional mapping. The number of QTLs detected that affected GY was different with respect to component-special influences. Our results revealed that the contributions of YC influencing QTL expression related to GY differed.