To separate minor actinides from HLLW by extraction chromatography, a few novel silica-based di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 4,4¢,(5¢)-di(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), and N,N,N¢,N¢-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) polymeric adsorption materials (HDEHP/SiO2-P, DtBuCH18C6/SiO2-P, CMPO/SiO2-P, and TODGA/SiO2-P) were synthesized by impregnating HDEHP, DtBuCH18C6, CMPO, and TODGA into the pores of porous SiO2-P particles, which were the new kind of inorganic/organic composites consisted of macroporous SiO2 and copolymer. The bleeding behavior of these composites was investigated by examining the effect of contact time and HNO3 concentration. It was found that in the tested HNO3 concentration range, a noticeable quantity of DtBuCH18C6, at least 600 ppm, leaked out from DtBuCH18C6/SiO2-P because of the protonation of DtBuCH18C6 with hydrogen ion, while the others were lower and basically equivalent to the solubility of HDEHP, CMPO, or TODGA in corresponding acidities solutions. Based on the batch experiment, the bleeding of CMPO/SiO2-P and TODGA/SiO2-P, the main adsorbents used in MAREC process for HLLW partitioning, was evaluated by column operation in 0.01M HNO3 and 3M HNO3. The quantity of CMPO leaked was ~48 ppm in 0.01M HNO3 and ~37 ppm in 3.0M HNO3. The bleeding of TODGA decreased from 23.2 ppm to 7.27 ppm at the initial stage and then basically kept constant. An actual bleeding of TODGA was evaluated by the separation of Sr(II) from a 2.0M HNO3 solution containing 5.0 . 10-3M of 6 typically simulated elements.
The Minor Actinides Recovery from HLW by Extraction Chromatography (MAREC) process was used mainly for the separation of minor
actinides (MAs) and some specific fission products (FPs) from highly active liquid waste (HLW) by the composite CMPO/SiO2-P of the macroporous silica based polymeric octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphoshine oxide (CMPO) and others.
In this study a cascade of chromatographic separation was performed on a 3.0M HNO3 solution containing 5.0 . 10-3M of 13 elements, at 323 K. The cascade consisted of three columns the first and second ones were packed with CMPO/SiO2-P and the third with SiO2-P particles. The first column was employed to prepare various eluents containing saturated CMPO. The second column was used
for separation into groups. The CMPO of CMPO/SiO2-P was recovered from the effluent by the third column and a CMPO-free effluent containing minor actinides was obtained. The
elements contained in the simulated HLW of 3.0M HNO3 were separated into (1) a non-adsorption group (Sr, Cs, and Ru etc.), (2) a MA-hRE (heavy rare earth)-Mo-Zr group, and (3) a lRE (light rare earth) group by eluting with 3.0M HNO3, 0.05M DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) (pH 2.0) and HNO3 (pH 3.5), respectively. The resultant MA-hRE-Mo-Zr mixture containing minor actinides was then separated into the groups (1) Pd-Ru, (2) MA-hRE, and (3) Mo-Zr by utilizing 3.0M HNO3, distilled water, and 0.05M DTPA (pH 2.0) as eluents. More than 92% of CMPO in the MA-hRE containing effluent was adsorbed by SiO2-P particles. The effectivity and technical feasibility of MAREC process were demonstrated.
Authors:H. Hoshi, Y. Wei, M. Kumagai, T. Asakura, and Y. Morita
Electroreduction of Tc(VII) was studied in nitric acid solution using glassy carbon electrode. The electroreduction was conducted at a constant potential –300 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a potentiostat. It was found that the difference of the Tc concentration in the solutions before and after the electrolysis was negligibly small. This means that there were almost no TcO2 or Tc deposited on the carbon fiber electrode during the electroreduction. Absorption spectra and distribution coefficients obtained by ion-exchange analysis indicated that Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV).
Authors:A. Zhang, Y. Wei, M. Kumagai, and T. Koyama
A new type of silica-based chelating extraction resin, DtBuCH18C6/SiO2-P, was prepared by impregnating a crown ether derivative, 4,4,(5)-di(tert-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), into the porous silica/polymer composite particles (SiO2-P). The adsorption of Sr(II) and some other fission product elements was investigated by a batch adsorption experiment in HNO3 medium. It was found that Sr(II) exhibits a strong adsorption onto the extraction resin, while the other fission product elements show almost no or only weak adsorption. The adsorption kinetics of Sr(II) was explained by assuming as the rate-controlling step the complex-formation reaction between Sr(II) and DtBuCH18C6 contained in the extraction resin. The rate equation of Sr(II) adsorption was determined as:-d[Sr(II)]/dt = k[Sr(II)][DtBuCH18C6][NO3–]0.5.
Authors:Y.-Z. Wei, B. Fang, T. Arai, and M. Kumagai
Electrochemical reduction of U(VI) in nitric acid-hydrazine solution is greatly influenced by the concentration of nitric
acid. In low acidity nitric acid solution such as 0.1M (M=mol/dm3) HNO3, U(VI) was firstly reduced to U(V) and then partially reduced to U(IV). In high acidity nitric acid solution, e.g., 3-6M
HNO3, an electrode process of two-electron transfer was involved in the reduction of U(VI). A higher U(IV) yield could be achieved
in nitric acid solution with higher concentration. Hydrazine was very effective in suppressing the reduction of concentrated
nitric acid, and the optimal concentration of hydrazine added was 0.075 to 0.15M in 6M HNO3
Authors:W.-Y. Liu, M.-L. Wei, C.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, F. Feng, and N. Xie
Patrinia scabra Bunge has long been used in clinic as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating leukemia and cancer and regulating host immune response. Despite their wide use in China, no report on system analysis on their chemical constituents is available so far. The current study was designed to profile the fingerprint of ethyl acetate extract of it, and in addition, to characterize the major fingerprint peaks and determine their quantity. Therefore, a detailed gradient high-performance liquid chromatography was described to separate more than 30 compounds with satisfactory resolution in P. scabra Bunge. Based on the chromatograms of 10 batches samples, a typical high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint was established with 23 chromatographic peaks being assigned as common fingerprint peaks. Furthermore, a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) was coupled for the characterization of major compound. As (+)-nortrachelogenin was the most predominant compound in P. scabra Bunge, the quantification on it was also carried out with the method being validated. As a result, (+)-nortrachelogenin was found to be from 1.33 to 2.21 mg g−1 in this plant material. This rapid and effective analytical method could be employed for quality assessment of P. scabra Bunge, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material.
Authors:X. L. Ouyang, X. M. Fang, Y. M. Pan, L. X. Wei, and H. S. Wang
To control the quality of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., a simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PAD) was developed for both fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. Four representative flavonoids, namely, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3,7-O-α-dirhamnopyranoside (II), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (III), and kaempferol-3-(4″-O-acetyl)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-r hamnopyranoside (IV) isolated from E. fortunei, were used as reference compounds and simultaneously determined by the validated HPLC method. The unique properties of the chromatographic fingerprint were validated by analyzing 11 batches of E. fortunei, E. japonicus, E. laxiflorus, E. myrianthus, and E. hamiltonianus samples. Our results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint combined with similarity measurement could efficiently identify and distinguish E. fortunei from the other investigated Euonymus species.
Authors:M. Lu, B. Wang, Zh. Li, Y. Fei, L. Wei, and Sh. Gao
Antifreeze protein (AFP) can lower the freezing point by inhibiting the growth of ice crystals. In this article, the thermal
hysteresis activity (THA) of a plant AFP was measured with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As is shown, when the
amount of ice in the sample was less than 5% THA of this AFP reached as high as 0.35°C. The secondary structure of this AFP
was studied with circular dichroism (CD). The CD spectrum from 195to 240 nm indicated a well-defined secondary structure consisting
11% α-helix, 34%antiparallel β-sheet and 55% random coil.
Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass) is a valuable source of novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits, resistance to wheat rust, powdery mildew, and insect pests. In this study, we successfully hybridized Ae. sharonensis as the pollen parent to common wheat and obtained backcross derivatives. F1 intergeneric hybrids were verified using morphological observation and cytological and molecular analyses. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants were intermediate between Ae. sharonensis and common wheat. Observations of mitosis in root tip cells and meiosis in pollen mother cells revealed that the F1 hybrids possessed 28 chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at metaphase I of the pollen mother cells in the F1 hybrid plants was low, and the meiotic configuration was 25.94 I + 1.03 II (rod). Two pairs of primers were screened out from 150 simple sequence repeat markers, and primer WMC634 was used to identified the presence of the genome of Ae. sharonensis. Sequencing results showed that the F1 hybrids contained the Ssh genome of Ae. sharonensis. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile showed that the alien high molecular weight glutenin subunits of Ae. sharonensis were transferred into the F1 and backcross derivatives. The new wheat-Ae. sharonensis derivatives that we have produced will be valuable for increasing resistance to various diseases of wheat and for improving the quality of bread wheat.
Authors:W. Li, Z.Y. Chen, Z. Li, X.F. Zhao, Z.E. Pu, G.Y. Chen, Q.T. Jiang, Y.M. Wei, and Y.L. Zheng
To study the development of starch granules in polyploid wheats, we investigated the expression of starch synthetic genes between the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, its parents T. turgidum AS2255 and diploid Ae. tauschii AS60. The synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1 showed significantly higher starch content and grain weight than its parents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that SHW-L1 rapidly developed starch granules than AS2255 and AS60. The amount of B-type granule in AS60 was less than that in SHW-L1 and AS2255. RT-qPCR result showed that the starch synthetic genes AGPLSU1, AGPLSU2, AGPSSU1, AGPSSU2, GBSSI, SSIII, PHO1 and PHO2 expressed at earlier stages with larger quantity in SHW-L1 than in its parents during wheat grain development. The expression of the above mentioned genes in AS60 was slower than in SHW-L1 and AS2255. The expression pattern of starch synthase genes was also associated with the grain weight and starch content in all three genotypes. The results suggested that the synthetic hexaploid wheat inherited the pattern of starch granule development and starch synthase gene expression from tetraploid parent. The results suggest that tetraploid wheat could plays more important role for starch quality improvement in hexaploid wheat.