The concept of absolute convergence for series is generalized to locally convex spaces and an invariant theorem for absolutely convergent series in duality is established: when a locally convex space
is weakly sequentially complete, an admissible topology which is strictly stronger than the weak topology on
in the dual pair (
) is given such that it has the same absolutely convergent series as the weak topology in
A RNAA procedure is described for the determination of trace Ir in Precambrian-Cambrian boundary samples. After irradiation, the powdered sample is transferred to a graphite crucible to expel the massive silicon with mixed acid (HF–HCl–HNO3) by heating. The residue is then fused with mixed fusion (Na2O2–NaOH) in a muffle furnace at 700°C for 15 minutes. After cooling, the fused mixture is leached with hot water. The final solution is adjusted to pH 1.5–2.0 and then passed through a column filled with thiourea type chelate resin. The resin absorbed with192Ir is measured for 4000–10 000 s by means of SCORPIO-3000 multi-channel computer — Ge(Li) detector system. Experiments with radioactive tracer are carried aout for checking radiochemical separation yield. The accuracy and precision of the method are evaluated by the analysis of U.S. geological SRMs DTS-1 and AG-Bohor-1. The method is used for the determination of trace Ir in several sets of Precambrian-Cambrian boundary samples collected from Yunnan province in China and the Ir anomaly is observed.
Authors:Jiang Jinxue, Yang Yonglin, Li Cheng and Li Jianzhang
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of three kinds of flame retardant (FR), boric acid, zinc borate, and borax on the thermal curing behavior of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin. Both pH value and gel time were measured to study the curing characters of the UF resin with different loading levels of FR. In addition, differential thermal analysis was also used to obtain kinetic analyses parameter. The results showed that boric acid decreased pH value of UF resin, and reduced gel time of the UF resin. There are no significant changes of the UF resin curing characters with different loading levels of FR. The activation energies for curing reaction of UF resins in the presence of boric acid, zinc borate, and borax, were 84.37, 84.41, and 118.4 kJ/mol, respectively, higher than that of the control one (75.38 kJ/mol). All FRs showed adverse effect on the curing behavior of the UF resin.
Authors:Yong Han, Peng Yang, Jun Li, Cong Qiao and Tian Li
The reaction of o-hydroxybenzyl alcohol with phenyl isocyanate has been investigated in different polar solvents with in situ FT-IR. The rate constants for the reactions of the phenolic hydroxyl group and the aliphatic hydroxyl group were calculated as k1 and k2, respectively. It is found that the phenolic hydroxyl group reacts more easily than the aliphatic hydroxyl group. It is also found that k1 increases with increasing solvent polarity, while the trend of k2 is the opposite. Moreover, the reaction kinetics is second-order with respect to toluene, butyl acetate, cyclohexanone and pyridine, but is first-order with respect to NMP and DMF without distinction for the two kinds of hydroxyl groups.
Authors:Xueli Li, Xiaoyi Yang, Ying Yang and Jianguang Li
This study aims at establishing a thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) scanning method for the determination of three alkaloids in Sophora alopecuroides and preliminary screening of antioxidant active components in S. alopecuroides with TLC—bioautography technology. The alkaloids in S. alopecuroides were identified by silica gel thin-layer chromatography; the expansion agent was toluene— acetone—methanol—ammonia—water (8:3:0.2:0.5:8), and the chromogenic agent was modified bismuth potassium iodide solution, sophoridine, matrine, and sophocarpine in S. alopecuroides by TLC scanning at 500 nm. The linear ranges were 0.4152–2.4912 μg for sophordine, 0.4245–2.5470 μg for matrine, and 0.4101– 2.4606 μg for sophocarpine, with correlation coefficients of 0.9939, 0.9956, and 0.9975. Ultraviolet (UV) method was used to determine the total scavenging activity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The best TLC identification condition was selected, and the antioxidant activity of DPPH was screened with the color. DPPH tests indicated that IC50 of S. alopecuroides was 0.40 mg mL−1. The TLC—bioautography technology showed the alkaloids in the purple background, and a white spot was not evident. Precision, accuracy, and repeatability of the TLC scanning method were evaluated, and the results were in accordance with the requirements of methodology validation. S. alopecuroides exhibits certain antioxidant activity, but the three alkaloids do not exhibit an evident antioxidant effect, and the unknown components of S. alopecuroides show weak antioxidant effect. The specific components need further studies.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Li, X. Yang, W. Liu and L. Li
A reborn interest has occurred during the last decade toward wheat landraces for broadening genetic basis of modern wheat cultivars. The investigation of molecular traits within and between existing landraces of wheat can help scientists to develop appropriate strategies for their efficient maintenance and exploitation. The present study dealt with the gliadin characterization of forty-seven wheat landraces collected from wheat mainly planted areas of China, each of which was represented by a sample of at least 43 individuals. Twelve accessions selected on the basis of gliadin analysis were investigated further using 21 SSR markers. The results proved that landraces of wheat are a mixture of variable individuals genetically distinguishable from each other. Twelve of the analyzed 47 accessions were observed to be homogeneous, while 35 (74.5%) of them were heterogeneous in their gliadin composition. In total, 122 gliadin pattern were observed. On average, 10.1% (Gst) of the total variation arose from differentiation among regions, and 89.9% was attributed to within-region variation. Furthermore, nineteen of the 21 SSR markers were polymorphic across all the populations. The total number of the amplified DNA products was 110, with a mean of 6.11 alleles per locus. The values of genetic diversity within each landrace population varied from 0.006 to 0.351. Implications for the management of this valuable genetic resource are discussed.
Authors:X. Li, X. Xu, X. Yang, X. Li, W. Liu, A. Gao and L. Li
Youzimai is a widespread wheat landrace and has been used extensively in breeding programs in China. In order to assess the genetic variation between and within Youzimai accessions, samples of 31 landrace accessions of wheat, all called ‘Youzimai’, were collected from 6 geographic regions in China and evaluated using morphological traits, seedling resistance to powdery mildew, gliadin and microsatellite markers. Typical differences among accessions were observed in morphological characteristics. Forty-five (58.4%) of 77 assayed SSR markers showed polymorphism over the entire collection and total 226 alleles were identified with an average of 5.02 alleles per locus. SSR data indicated that the accessions from Hebei province were the most diverse, as evidenced by greatest number of region-specific alleles and highest diversity index. These accessions, therefore, probably experienced the most substantial morphological and molecular evolution as a result of various natural and anthropomorphic influences. On the other hand, differentiation in gliadin phenotypes was found among seeds within 80.6% of total accessions and average 61.5% of entire collections showed heterogeneous and comprised resistant plants in reaction to powdery mildew, suggesting the presence of a wide diversity within the wheat landrace. By developing an intimate knowledge of the available wheat genotypes, appropriate selections can be made for commercial application in order to conserve and exploit the diversity of the wheat landraces.
Authors:Wei Yang, Guangxing Li, Yudong Ren, Siqingaowa Suo and Xiaofeng Ren
Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is one of the important pathogens that may cause severe diarrhoea in piglets. In this study, the nucleocapsid (N) gene of a Chinese PEDV isolate designated HLJBY was cloned. The phylogeny of PEDV strains was investigated by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on the N protein sequences. The results indicate that there are two major groups of Chinese PEDVs, a Japanese PEDV group and a Korean PEDV group. High-level expression of the N protein was achieved in Escherichia coli. The immunoreactivity between PEDV particles or the bacterially expressed N protein and rabbit anti-PEDV serum was confirmed by immunofluorescence assays and Western blot. Both PEDV N protein and the polyclonal antibody generated in this study are valuable diagnostic reagents for PEDV surveillance.
In this study, the peach kernel proteins were extracted and treated with alkaline proteinase to generate peach kernel protein hydrolysate (PKH), which showed angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. The hydrolysate was separated into four fractions and their anti-ACE activities were investigated. Our results showed that all PKHs had anti-ACE activity, and the lowest molecular weight fraction PKH4 had the highest ACE inhibitory activity. Lineweaver–Burk plots illustrated that the inhibition types of PKH3 and PKH4 were non-competitive. The Ki of PKH4 was lower than Ki of PKH3; suggesting PKH4 had high affinity to ACE. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the best anti-ACE peptide PKH4 possessed high levels of hydrophobic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, and aromatic amino acids. In summary, our findings demonstrated that high anti-ACE activity is negatively related to the size of the PKHs and possibly the composition of amino acids, and the PKH4 was the best ACE inhibitor. Further, peach kernel peptides can be developed as a functional food for patients with hypertension.