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Pentaerythritol diphosphonate melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin salt, a novel cheap macromolecular intumescent flame retardants (IFR), was synthesized, and its structure was a caged bicyclic macromolecule containing phosphorus characterized by IR. Epoxy resins (EP) were modified with IFR to get the flame retardant EP, whose flammability and burning behavior were characterized by UL 94 and limiting oxygen index (LOI). 25 mass% of IFR were doped into EP to get 27.2 of LOI and UL 94 V-0. The thermal properties of epoxy resins containing IFR were investigated with thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG). Activation energy for the decomposition of samples was obtained using Kissinger equation. The resultant data show that for EP containing IFR, compared with EP, IFR decreased mass loss, thermal stability and R max, increased the char yield. The activation energy for the decomposition of EP is 230.4 kJ mol−1 while it becomes 193.8 kJ mol−1 for EP containing IFR, decreased by 36.6 kJ mol−1, which shows that IFR can catalyze decomposition and carbonization of EP.

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Exploring antibiotic resistant mechanism by microcalorimetry

Determination of thermokinetic parameters of metallo-β-lactamase L1 catalyzing penicillin G hydrolysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Hui-Zhou Gao, Qi Yang, Xiao-Yan Yan, Zhu-Jun Wang, Ji-Li Feng, Xia Yang, Sheng-Li Gao, Lei Feng, Xu Cheng, Chao Jia, and Ke-Wu Yang


In an effort to probe the reaction of antibiotic hydrolysis catalyzed by B3 metallo-β-lactamase (MβL), the thermodynamic parameters of penicillin G hydrolysis catalyzed by MβL L1 from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were determined by microcalorimetric method. The values of activation free energy ΔG θ are 88.26, 89.44, 90.49, and 91.57 kJ mol−1 at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15 K, respectively, activation enthalpy ΔH θ is 24.02 kJ mol−1, activation entropy ΔS θ is −219.2511 J mol−1 K−1, apparent activation energy E is 26.5183 kJ mol−1, and the reaction order is 1.0. The thermodynamic parameters reveal that the penicillin G hydrolysis catalyzed by MβL L1 is an exothermic and spontaneous reaction.

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Two new y-type HMW-GSs in Ae. tauschii , 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t with the mobility order of 1Dy12.2 t > 1Dy12.1* t > 1Dy12.1 t >1Dy12, were identified by both SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Molecular cloning and sequencing showed that the genes encoding subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t had identical nucleotide acid sequences with 1,947 bp encoding a mature protein of 627 residues. Their deduced molecular weights were 67,347.6 Da, satisfactorily corresponding to that of 1Dy12.2 t subunit determined by MALDI-TOF-MS (67,015.7 Da), but was significantly smaller than that of the the 1Dy12.1* t subunit (68,577.1 Da). Both subunits showed high similarities to 1Dy10, suggesting that they could have a positive effect on bread-making quality. Interestingly, the expressed protein of the cloned ORF from accessions TD87 and TD130 in E. coli co-migrated with subunit 1Dy12.2 t , but moved slightly faster than 1Dy12.1* t on SDS-PAGE. The expressed protein in transgenic tobacco seeds, however, had the same mobility as the 1Dy12.1* t subunit, as confirmed by both SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Although direct evidence of phosphoprotein could not be obtained by specific staining method, certain types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of the 1Dy12.1* t subunit could not be excluded. We believe PTMs might be responsible for the molecular weight difference between the subunits 1Dy12.1* t and 1Dy12.2 t .

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This paper aims to reveal the relationship and structure of library and information science (LIS) journals in China. 24 core LIS journals in China are selected and the relevant data of journal co-citation are retrieved from Chinese Journal Full-Text Database constructed by China National Knowledge Infrastructure during the period of 1999–2009. By calculating mean co-citation frequencies and correlation coefficients, we find that there is a strong relationship among LIS journals in China. Utilizing the methods of cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis and factor analysis, we analyze the data of journal co-citation. LIS journals in China are divided into four clusters. The relatedness among journals is shown manifestly through their locations in the two-dimensional map. A three-factor solution is obtained with the factor loading of each journal. Finally, we interpret and discuss the results to get some conclusions and also expect to describe the network characters of journal co-citation in future research.

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Background and aims

This large-scale study aimed to test (a) associations of problematic Internet use (PIU) and sleep disturbance with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and (b) whether sleep disturbance mediates the association between PIU and suicidal behavior.


Data were drawn from the 2017 National School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 20,895 students’ questionnaires were qualified for analysis. The Young’s Internet Addiction Test was used to assess PIU, and level of sleep disturbance was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multilevel logistic regression models and path models were utilized in analyses.


Of the total sample, 2,864 (13.7%) reported having suicidal ideation, and 537 (2.6%) reported having suicide attempts. After adjusting for control variables and sleep disturbance, PIU was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03−1.04) and suicide attempts (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02−1.04). Findings of the path models showed that the standardized indirect effects of PIU on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = 0.092, 95% CI = 0.082−0.102) and on suicide attempts (standardized β estimate = 0.082, 95% CI = 0.068−0.096) through sleep disturbance were significant. Conversely, sleep disturbance significantly mediated the association of suicidal behavior on PIU.

Discussion and conclusions

There may be a complex transactional association between PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior. The estimates of the mediator role of sleep disturbance provide evidence for the current understanding of the mechanism of the association between PIU and suicidal behavior. Possible concomitant treatment services for PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior were recommended.

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