Theories posit that the combination of external (e.g. cue exposure) and internal (e.g. attention biases) factors contributes to the development of game craving. Nevertheless, whether different components of attentional biases (namely, engagement bias and disengagement bias) play separate roles on game craving has not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine the associations between two facets of attentional biases and game craving dynamics under a daily life setting.
Participants (110 regular internet game players) accomplished the modified attentional assessment task in the laboratory, after which they entered a 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to collect data on their momentary game craving and occurrence of game-related events at five different time points per day.
We found that occurrence of game-related events was significantly associated with increased game craving. Moreover, attentional disengagement bias, instead of engagement bias, bore on the occasional level variations of game craving as moderating variables. Specifically, attentional disengagement bias, not engagement bias, was associated with a greater increase in game craving immediately after encountering a game-related event; however, neither attentional engagement bias nor disengagement bias was associated with the craving maintenance after a relatively long period.
Discussion and conclusions
The present study highlights the specific attentional processes involved in game craving dynamics, which could be crucial for designing interventions for attentional bias modification (ABM) in Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) populations.
The antibacterial effect of Curcumin on Staphylococcus aureus growth was evaluated by microcalorimetry. The heat flow power–time curves and nine quantitative parameters of the S. aureus growth were applied to investigate the inhibitory effect with Curcumin. By analyzing these curves and some quantitative parameters using multivariate analytical methods, similarity analysis and principal component analysis, the antibacterial activity of Curcumin on S. aureus could be accurately evaluated from the change of the two main parameters, the second exponential growth rate constant k2 and the maximum heat flow power Pm2. The main two thermal parameters played more important role in the evaluation: at low concentration (0–10.5 μg mL−1), Curcumin hardly influence the growth of S. aureus, while at high concentration (10.5–43.4 μg mL−1) it could notably inhibit the growth. All these illustrated that the antibacterial activity of Curcumin on S. aureus was enhanced with the increase of the concentration of this compound. This study might provide an useful method and idea accurately evaluate the antibacterial effects of Curcumin, which provides some useful methods for evaluate the nature antibacterial agents.
Using microcalorimetry, the characteristic metabolic heat flow power-time curves of S. aureus growth affected by Ursodesoxycholic acid and Hyodeoxycholic acid were measured at 37 °C. The thermal-kinetic parameters such as, growth rate constant k, the maximum power output (Pm), the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tp), total heat-production Qt, half inhibitory concentration of the drugs (IC50) were calculated from the growth curves. For both HDCA and UDCA, with the increasing of concentration, k, Pm, and Qt decreased, meanwhile, k–c fit a linear equation, tp was prolonged correspondingly. Principle component analysis, the results indicated tp might be the main parameter in evaluating the antibacterial activity of HDCA and UDCA in microcalorimetric method. Combining with tp and IC50, the results revealed that the differences and trends of antibacterial activity of these bile acid derivatives were: HDCA > UDCA. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis showed that the α-OH at C-3 and C-6 position at equal pace on the steroid nucleus enhanced the hydrophilicity of HDCA, which led to a stronger antibacterial effect than UDCA. In this study, a useful tool was provided to accurately evaluate the antibacterial effects of bile acid derivatives. The thermolysis curve recorded by microcalorimetry could provide a lot of kinetic and thermodynamic information for the study of growth process of living microbial, which could be helpful in the screening of high efficacy antibacterial agents.