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This study describes the development process of Kor-Factor, which is a novel composite evaluation index that was developed to promote Korean domestic academic journals. As more data accumulate, the Kor-Factor's optimization process was modified in an attempt to address possible drawbacks of the original form; the result is presented in this study. This study compares Kor-Factor with the Impact Factor, which is the most well-known single element evaluation index. We found that Kor-Factor demonstrates a better power of differentiation and a greater capacity to reflect the reputability of key journals. The modified Kor-Factor, which has been developed through an optimization process, reveals a greater power of differentiation than the original Kor-Factor; however, the modified version has less capacity to reflect reputability. The evaluation elements of the modified Kor-Factor are better and are more evenly reflected on the index value than those of the original version. Finally, we propose the establishment of an appropriate data measurement period for the actual application of the index.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Seung-Yup Lee, Donghwan Lee, Cho Rong Nam, Da Yea Kim, Sera Park, Jun-Gun Kwon, Yong-Sil Kweon, Youngjo Lee, Dai Jin Kim, and Jung-Seok Choi

Background and objectives

The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA).


After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups.


In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and “healthy” users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females.


An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

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