The Shors are one of the minor indigenous Turkic peoples of Siberia the majority of whom are living in the Kemerovo Oblast’. The Shor language is a conglomeration of two basically very different northern Turkic dialects, identified by river names as Kondoma Shor (the southern dialect) and Mrass Shor (the northern dialect). The Mrass dialect belongs to the azaq[/taγlγ]-group, whereas the Kondoma dialect belongs to the [ayaq/]taγlγ-group. The Shor literary language was formed on the basis of the Mrass dialect in the 1920s but soon after its formation it suffered a decline from the late 1930s to the early 1990s due to the Soviet policy of assimilation of minorities. It is now a severely endangered language. In the present paper the month names in Shor (Mrass dialect) are treated. The material is based on the fieldwork study of the Altaic Society of Korea and the testimony of month names in the Shor dictionaries. Wherever necessary, these month names were also compared with those to be found in other Turkic languages.
This paper attempts to give new explanation for the ethnonyms bẄklI and čẄlgl (or čẄlgIl) occurring in the Türk inscriptions of Kül Tegin and Bilgä Kagan. After a thorough survey of former research the author comes to the conclusion that the two names must be treated separately, both indicating a separate country. Bökli or Bökküli (bẄklI), as was correctly supposed formerly, is undoubtedly identical with Goguryeo, a Korean state of the period. čẄlgl (or čẄlgIl) must be read as Čülüg el which may be a Turkic name for the Chinese state of Northern Zhou of Tuoba origin. On the other hand, a third ethnonym of the inscriptions, Tabgač, refers to the Northern Qi state of Tuoba origin. So it is certainly inaccurate to translate Tabgač, in a simpflified manner, as ‘China’ or ‘the Chinese’ as most researchers have done until now. Čülüg el and Tabgač were two separate Chinese states of the period.
The Šine-Usu Inscription is the most voluminous one with 50 lines among the Uighur inscriptions. Although most parts of this inscription can be well understood, many words and sentences in the south and west sides are not so. These sides are now severely damaged. W..GšNG in the 4th line of the west side has been differently interpreted by researchers. The author regards xNùx±±v W..GšNG as a misreading for xNùx±±N N..GšNG, and amends it as xNùx[vL]N N[LW]GšNG an[lu]γšanïγ, suggesting that the letter groups TKGWYILKA …… N[LW]GšNGYWwKïKILms in this line should be read as taqïγu yïlqa …… an[lu]γšanïγ yoq q͜ ïlmïš “In the Fowl year (= 757), …… allegedly he (or they) eliminated Anluγšan (= An Lushan)”.
Many parts of the Kül Tegin and Bilgä Kagan inscriptions are almost identical with each other. Although most parts of these inscriptions are well understood, some parts like the letter group ïKIDmz in the second sentence of KT S 6 and in the last sentence of BK N 4 are not so. The letter group ïKIDmz has been read and interpreted in various ways. The author regards
ïKIDmz as a spelling error (or an alternative spelling) for
KIDmz and suggests that it can be read as akïdmaz ‘they do not become generous / openhanded’. As a hapax legomenon, the verb akïd- ‘to become generous / openhanded’ is analysed as akï ‘generous, openhanded’ + -d- ‘a suffix making a denominal verb’.
The second sentence of line 18 (= line 1 on the east side of the first stele) of the Tunyukuk Inscription has been amended as [: eki] süm[üz b]oltï or [biz eki sü b]oltï ‘We had two armies’. Considering the second sentence of line 17, the information from the first and second sentences of line 18 would be that the peoples around us joined us and thus the number of our soldiers, which was 2,000, increased. If that is the case, the second sentence may be hypothetically amended as [: bir] tüm[än b]oltï ‘It (= the number of our soldiers) became 10,000’ or [: eki] tüm[än b]oltï ‘It (= the number of our soldiers) became 20,000’.
This paper attempts to give new explanation for the expression agrïp yok bol- occurring in 9th line of the south side of the Bilgä Kagan Inscription. After a thorough survey of former research and several Chinese sources, the authors came to the conclusion that this expression must be a euphemistic expression for being beheaded in a battle. The authors found also that kog säŋün was Guo Yingjie 郭英傑. In sum, the sentence in question is to be read as ulug oglum agrïp yok bolča kog säŋünüg balbal tikä bertim ‘When my oldest son died of a disease, I readily erected General Kog as a balbal (for him).’ The expression agrïp yok bol- is to be regarded as a euphemistic expression for being beheaded in a battle.
Authors:Bo Song, Yong Wang, Hongwei Bai, Li Liu, Yanli Li, Jihong Zhang, and Zuowan Zhou
This paper reports the crystallization behavior of maleic anhydride grafted poly(propylene) (PP-MA) with an aryl amide derivative (TMB-5) as β-phase nucleating agent (β-NA). The isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization behaviors of PP-MA and nucleated PP-MA are comparatively researched based on the concentration of β-NA of 0.2 wt%. Subsequent melting behaviors after isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization process are also investigated to explore the crystalline structures formed during the crystallization. The results indicate that TMB-5 is an efficient β-NA in influencing the crystallization of PP-MA through increasing the crystallization rate and decreasing the fold surface free energy, leading to large amounts of β-phase formation during the crystallization process.
Authors:Chun-Hong Jiang, Li-Fang Song, Cheng-Li Jiao, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Yong Du, and Zhong Cao
A three-dimensional lithium-based metal–organic framework Li2(2,6-NDC) (2,6-NDC = 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometer analysis (TG–MS). The framework has exceptional stability and is stable to 863 K. The thermal decomposition characteristic of this compound was investigated through the TG–MS from 293 to 1250 K. The molar heat capacity of the compound was measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 195 to 670 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy versus 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated.
Authors:Li-Fang Song, Cheng-Li Jiao, Chun-Hong Jiang, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Qing-Zhu Jiao, Yong-Heng Xing, F. L. Huang, Yong Du, Zhong Cao, Fen Li, and Jijun Zhao
One-three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks Mg1.5(C12H6O4)1.5(C3H7NO)2 (MgNDC) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MgNDC were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 205 to 470 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters of MgNDC such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacities data. Moreover, the thermal stability and decomposition of MgNDC was further investigated through thermogravimetry (TG)–mass spectrometer (MS). Three stages of mass loss were observed in the TG curve. TG–MS curve indicated that the oxidative degradation products of MgNDC are mainly H2O, CO2, NO, and NO2.
A metal-organic framework [Mn(4,4′-bipy)(1,3-BDC)]n (MnMOF, 1,3-BDC = 1,3-benzene dicarboxylate, 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine) has been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD and FT-IR spectrum. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MnMOF were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition mechanism of MnMOF were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis-mass spectrometer. A two-stage mass loss was observed in air flow. MS curves indicated that the gas products of oxidative degradation were H2O, CO2, NO, and NO2.