Authors:Hye-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Min, Hyun-Jin Kim, and Kyoung-Bok Min
Background and aims
The smartphone is one of the most popular devices, with the average smartphone usage at 162 min/day and the average length of phone usage at 15.79 hr/week. Although significant concerns have been made about the health effects of smartphone addiction, the relationship between smartphone addiction and accidents has rarely been studied. We examined the association between smartphone addiction and accidents among South Korean university students.
A total of 608 college students completed an online survey that included their experience of accidents (total number; traffic accidents; falls/slips; bumps/collisions; being trapped in the subway, impalement, cuts, and exit wounds; and burns or electric shocks), their use of smartphone, the type of smartphone content they most frequently used, and other variables of interests. Smartphone addiction was estimated using Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, a standardized measure developed by the National Institution in Korea.
Compared with normal users, participants who were addicted to smartphones were more likely to have experienced any accidents (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.26–2.86), falling from height/slipping (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.10–3.91), and bumps/collisions (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.16–2.87). The proportion of participants who used their smartphones mainly for entertainment was significantly high in both the accident (38.76%) and smartphone addiction (36.40%) groups.
Discussion and conclusions
We suggest that smartphone addiction was significantly associated with total accident, falling/slipping, and bumps/collisions. This finding highlighted the need for increased awareness of the risk of accidents with smartphone addiction.
Authors:Jin-Hwan Kim, Sun-Ju Choi, and Young-Don Hong
The organometallic precursor of fac-[99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ has attracted much attention because of the robustness and small size of Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complexes compared to Tc(V) complexes
and the good labeling affinity with a variety of donor atoms. Among various ligand systems, an iminodiacetic acid (IDA) was
proven as a good chelating group to form a Tc(III)-compelx as well as has been shown its potential as a chelating system for
fac-[99mTc(CO)3] precursor. In an attempt to confirm the similarity and the difference between 99mTc(CO)3-IDA and 99mTc-(IDA)2-complex, M(CO)3-IDA (M = 99mTc, Re) complexes of disofenin, mebrofenin and N-(3-iodo-2,4,6-trimethyl phenylcarbamoylmethyl) iminodiacetic acid were prepared, and the biological evaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-disofenin was performed. The 99mTc(CO)3-IDA complexes were prepared with a high radiolabeling yield (>98%) in a quantitative manner and showed a negative charge.
The in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of 99mTc(CO)3-disofenin showed a similar biological activity to 99mTc-(disofenin)2 in that those complexes were quickly cleared from the blood by the hepatocytes and excreted into the gallbladder and intestine.
Accordingly, the 99mTc(CO)3-IDA derivatives of disofenin and mebrofenin might be used as hepatobiliary imaging agents. Since an IDA is a promising chelator
for 99mTc-based radiopharmaceutical and the biological properties of 99mTc(CO)3-IDA derivative shows similar to that of 99mTc-complex, a biomolecule containing IDA can be freely radiolabeled with fac-[99mTc(CO)3]-precursor or 99mTc. However, the radiolabeling efficiency and the biological behavior demonstrates the favorable properties of 99mTc(CO)3-IDA compound for the development of a new imaging agent.
Authors:Hyun-Je Cho, Yong-Sam Chung, and Young-Jin Kim
A prompt gamma activation analysis facility has been constructed on the ST1 horizontal beam port at the HANARO research reactor, KAERI in 2003. The detector system consists of a high-purity Ge detector surrounded by BGO/NaI(Tl) scintillators as an annulus type to reject the Compton scattered photons. Detection sensitivity for boron was obtained from the prompt gamma-ray spectra of boric acid, B(OH)3, containing 0.1-65 μg boron. The net peak for the calculation of the boron concentration was obtained by eliminating the sodium 472 keV peak, involved in the boron 478 keV peak. The biological samples used are NIST SRMs such as Peach Leaves, Apple Leaves, Tomato Leaves, Spinach Leaves, Total Diet, Typical Diet, Oyster Tissue and Corn Bran, etc. The measured values for high boron concentration showed up to a 3% of the relative, but in a low concentration below 5 ppm, present values were higher than the certified ones.
Authors:Jong-Hwa Moon, Sun-Ha Kim, Yong-Sam Chung, and Young-Jin Kim
The k0-standardization method (k0-NAA) is known as one of the most remarkable progresses of the NAA with its many advantages. For the application of k0-NAA method at the NAA #1 irradiation position where the neutrons are well thermalized in the HANARO research reactor, KAERI,
Korea, the determination of the reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f have been carried out. The measured values of α and f using the “Cd-ratio” triple monitor method were 0.127±0.022 and 1010±70, respectively. To evaluate the applicability of k0-NAA in our analytical system, the analysis of three kinds of SRMs was executed. The analytical results showed that the relative
error of most of the elements was less than 10% and the U-scores were within 2. It is turned out that the procedure of the k0-NAA in the HANARO research reactor is available for a practical application in the environmental fields.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Jong-Hwa Moon, Sun-Ha Kim, Sang-Hoon Kang, and Young-Jin Kim
To enhance the applicability of the nuclear analytical technique in the field of industry and the environment, the inorganic
elemental content of the bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator was determined by instrumental neutron activation
analysis. Bottom ash samples were monthly collected from an incinerator located at a metropolitan city in Korea, strained
through a 5 mm sieve, dried by an oven and pulverized by an agate mortar. The samples were irradiated at the NAA #1 irradiation
hole (thermal neutron flux: 2.92·1013 n·cm−2·s−1) in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and the irradiated samples were measured by
a HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometer. Thirty-three elements including As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn were analyzed by an absolute
method. The quality control was conducted by a simultaneous analysis with NIST standard reference materials. The average concentrations
of the major elements such as Ca, Fe, Al, Na, Mg, K and Ti measured in the sample were 19.9%, 4.85%, 3.79%, 2.11%, 1.84%,
1.22% and 1.02%, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of the hazardous metals like Zn, Cu, Cr, Sb and As were 0.77%,
0.31%, 729 mg·kg−1, 116 mg·kg−1 and 22.2 mg·kg−1, respectively.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM2.5and PM10) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea
from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2)
method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust,
coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Moon Jong-Hwa, Young-Jin Kim, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Jin-Hong Lee
As part of an air pollution monitoring study, airborne particulate matter (PM2/PM10-2) samples were collected from 2000 to 2003 at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea. Mass concentrations
of both fine and coarse fractions and that of the black carbon in the fine particles were measured using the Gent stacked
filter unit sampler and the smoke stain reflectometer, respectively. In the collected samples the concentrations of 24 elements
were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Monitored data were investigated for their temporal trends under
different environmental conditions and their seasonal correlation patterns. Crustal enrichment factors were also estimated
to establish the contribution between anthropogenic and crustal origin. Patterns for airborne particle matter (APM) and elemental
concentrations, seasonal variation of some marker elements were investigated. The results can be applied for the investigation
of further air pollution sources and for the evaluation of air quality.
Authors:Yong-Sam Chung, Sun-Ha Kim, Jong-Hwa Moon, Sung-Yeol Baek, Young-Jin Kim, Hark-Rho Kim, Il-Jin Park, and Kyung-Sik Min
A fast pneumatic transfer system for an instrumental neutron activation analysis and delayed neutron counting system were
reconstructed with new designs of a functional improvement at the HANARO research reactor in 2006. The design, conception,
operation and control of these systems are described. Also the experimental characteristic parameters by a functional operation
test and an irradiation test of these systems, such as the transfer time, the neutron flux, the temperature of the irradiation
position with an irradiation time, the radiation dose rate when the rabbit is returned, etc., are reported to provide a user
information as well as for the management and safety of the reactor.
Authors:Ji-Won Chun, Chang-Hyun Park, Jin-Young Kim, Jihye Choi, Hyun Cho, Dong Jin Jung, Kook-Jin Ahn, Jung-Seok Choi, Dai-Jin Kim, and In Young Choi
Background and aims
Although the Internet has provided convenience and efficiency in many areas of everyday life, problems stemming from Internet use have also been identified, such as Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Internet addiction, which includes IGD, can be viewed as a behavioral addiction or impulse control disorder. This study investigated the altered functional and effective connectivity of the core brain networks in individuals with IGD compared to healthy controls (HCs).
Forty-five adults with IGD and 45 HCs were included in this study. To examine the brain networks related to personality traits that influence problematic online gaming, the left and right central executive network (CEN) and the salience network (SN) were included in the analysis. Also, to examine changes in major brain network topographies, we analyzed the default mode network (DMN).
IGD participants showed lower functional connectivity between the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other regions in the CEN than HC participants during resting state. Also, IGD participants revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other regions in the SN and lower functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex of the anterior DMN. Notably, in IGD individuals but not HC individuals, there was a positive correlation between IGD severity and effective connectivity and a positive correlation between reward sensitivity and effective connectivity within the ventral striatum of the SN.
Problematic online gaming was associated with neurofunctional alterations, impairing the capacity of core brain networks.