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Abstract  

The manganese sulphate bath method is widely used for measurements of neutron source strength. In this study, the analytical chemistry method based on the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) spectrometry was used for examining the impurity contents of MnSO4·H2O, to induce55Mn(n,γ)56Mn reactions. From the analytical results, mainly K, Co, and Zn as well as trace amounts of Cd, Li, etc., have turned out to be the relevant impurities absorbing the neutrons and the fraction of neutron absorbed by the total impurities was determined to be 1.37%.

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Background

Potential concerns are increasing that smartphone and Internet addictions may have deleterious effects on the mental health. Despite the recognition of the important role that implicit associations may have over explicit processes in addiction, such implicit associations have not been comprehensively investigated with respect to Internet addiction. Therefore, we modified the Implicit Association Test (IAT) for smartphone and Internet addictions and investigated its validity in children and adolescents.

Methods

In this experimental study, 78 at-risk children and adolescents ranging in age from 7 to 17 years completed an IAT modified with pictures captured from the most popular Internet games among youth. Furthermore, measures of Internet and smartphone addictions, mental health and problem behaviors, impulsive tendencies, self-esteem, daily stress, and quality of life were assessed simultaneously.

Results

Significant correlations were found between IAT D2SD scores and standardized scales for Internet (r = .28, p < .05) and smartphone (r = .33, p < .01) addictions. There were no significant correlations between IAT parameters and other scales measuring the constructs that are less relevant to the features of addiction, such as daily stress levels, impulsivity, and quality of life. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IAT D2SD was independently and positively associated with smartphone addiction (p = .03) after controlling for other clinical correlates.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity of this IAT as a novel measurement relating to Internet and smartphone addictions. Further longitudinal and prospective studies are needed to evaluate its potential utility in clinical and community settings.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Sam-Wook Choi, Hyun Kim, Ga-Young Kim, Yeongju Jeon, Su Park, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Jung, Bo Sohn, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim

Open access

Abstract

Background and aim

Whereas many studies on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have used self-report questionnaires, only a few have adopted clinical interviews and samples. The current study aimed at using data from face-to-face diagnostic interviews, based on the criteria for IGD in the DSM-5, to determine the Internet, gaming, and smartphone usage patterns of children and adolescents.

Methods

A latent class analysis was conducted using data collected through diagnostic interviews for Internet, gaming, and smartphone addiction with 190 participants (M = 13.14 years, SD = 2.46; 143 boys, 47 girls) who were part of a multicenter clinical cohort study.

Results

Participants were classified into four groups: pleasure-seeking (Class 1), internal-use (Class 2), problematic-use (Class 3), and pathological-use (Class 4). The pleasure-seeking group (8.11%) showed low tendencies in general and proper control. The internal-use group (17.63%) showed significant increases in “cognitive salience” and “craving,” with strong internal desires. The problematic-use group (37.28%) had no “interference with role performance”; however, they displayed “difficulty regulating use” and “persistent use despite negative consequences,” with a slight functional impairment. The pathological-use group (36.98%) scored the highest on all these items, revealing a severe functional impairment. Compared to the other groups, the pathological-use group had the highest depression and daily stress levels and displayed the lowest levels of happiness.

Conclusions

This study provides basic data to elucidate Internet, gaming, and smartphone overuse patterns among children and adolescents, which could be used to develop differentiated intervention strategies for each group.

Open access