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Co-governance Based on Abilities and Relations

An Explanation of Governance Structure of Farmer Cooperatives in Zhejiang Province, China

Authors: Zu-hui Huang, Xu-chu Xu, Yu Song and Yu Song

The institutional arrangement of farmer cooperatives in the coastal areas of east China is characterized by a distinct shareholding from the very beginning. After describing some basic facts of institutional arrangement of farmer cooperatives in Zhejiang, the paper puts forward a framework from perspectives such as institutions, norms, trust and commitment for studying the residual control rights of cooperatives. The authors not only point out that the governance structures of farmer cooperatives in the coastal areas of China are the co-governance structure based on the abilities and relations, but also analyze the unique roles of abilities and relations in constructing the governance structure of farmer cooperative in China.

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Summary  

It is proved that, if \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $f(x)\in L^p_{[-1,1]}$ \end{document}, \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $1< p< \infty$ \end{document}, changes sign exactly \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $l$ \end{document} times, then there exists a real rational function \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $r(x)\in R_{n}^l$ \end{document} such that

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $${\|f-r\|}_{p}\le C_{p,\delta}{(l+1)}^2\omega {(f,n^{-1})}_p,$$ \end{document}
which generalizes a result of Leviatan and Lubinsky in \cite{4}. A weaker similar result in \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $L^1_{[-1,1]}$ \end{document} is also established.

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Abstract

Radiative heat transfer could be a significant contribution to the total heat transfer within the highly porous materials. This article reports on the use of a conventional instrument, viz. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, for the characterization of radiative heat properties of fiber assemblies with low bulk densities. Experimental measurements on spectral transmission with FTIR were performed on five types of fiber assemblies commonly used for insulating materials. From the measurements, radiative heat conductivity was determined by calculating extinction coefficient using Beer's Law and applying the diffusion approximation approach. Bulk density, fiber arrangement, and temperature influences to radiative heat transfer were discussed. Results show that radiative heat conductivity decreases with bulk density and that of the random arranged fiber assemblies shows lower radiative heat conductivity than the random ball and parallel arranged fiber assemblies. Radiative heat conductivity is proportional to the cubic temperature. The existing theoretical model was modified by comparing theoretical and experimental radiative heat conductivity results.

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Abstract

Fractal theory has been proved effective to characterize the complex pore structure. In this article, the fractal method is utilized to study the structure property of fibrous assemblies. The box dimension parameter is applied to characterize the pore structure of fibrous assemblies by analyzing the electronic scanning microscope images of the fibrous assemblies. Furthermore, a fractal model for predicting effective heat conductivity is established. Experiment is conducted to verify the model, and good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. The fractal model is also compared with the previous models for predicating heat conductivity, and the former is proved to be more accurate.

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Abstract  

Thermodynamics and crystallization kinetics of the hydrothermal synthesis of Na4Ti4Si3O10 (NaTS) were systemically studied by both experiments and model simulation. Experimental results showed that the curve of crystallinity with time was a characteristic signmoid in the shape that indicated the crystallization of Na4Ti4Si3O10 was a typical spontaneous nucleation process on the laboratory scale. Crystallization of NaTS belongs to the liquid-liquid transformation mechanism and the reaction is endothermic (ΔH = 15.3 kJ/mol). A mathematic model of crystallization kinetics was developed to simulate the synthesis of NaTS. Runge-Kutta and simplex methods were adopted to solve the partial differential equations. Model results fitted well with the experimental data and showed that the synthesis process belongs to spontaneous nucleation and crystal growth. Moreover, the very small crystal growth constant (5.6·10−7) and gel dissolution constant (7.0·10−7) indicate they are the rate-limiting steps of the whole synthesis process.

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A sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) method for analysis of lovastatin in human plasma has been developed and validated. Ethyl acetate extraction was used for plasma sample preparation and simvastatin was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by isocratic elution with 83:17:0.1 (v/v) methanol-2 μM aqueous sodium acetate-formic acid as mobile phase, delivered at 1.0 mL min−1. MS-MS detection was performed using positive electrospray ionization and multiple-reaction monitoring with argon for collision-induced dissociation. Calibration plots were generated over the concentration range 0.05 to 20 ng mL−1 (r > 0.999) with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.05 ng mL−1. Intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were determined at four different concentrations, 0.05, 0.5, 2.0, and 10.0 ng mL−1, and precision ranged from 0.4 to 11.4% with the deviation always less than 15% (n = 5). Extraction recoveries were from 86.8 to 94.1% for lovastatin and approximately 88.0% for simvastatin. The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two lovastatin tablets in 20 healthy volunteers.

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Abstract  

Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences of FA/Co2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption.

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Abstract  

[Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was prepared by mixing the aqueous solution of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one and cadmium carbonate in excess. The single crystal structure was determined by a four-circle X-ray diffractometer. The crystal is monoclinic, space group C2/c with crystal parameters of a=2.1229(3) nm, b=0.6261(8) nm, c=2.1165(3) nm, β=90.602(7), V=2.977(6) nm3, Z=4, Dc=2.055 gcm−3, μ=15.45 cm−1, F(000)=1824, λ(MoKα)=0.071073 nm. The final R is 0.0282. Based on the results of thermal analysis, the thermal decomposition mechanism of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O was derived. From measurements of the enthalpy of solution of [Cd(NTO)4Cd(H2O)6]4H2O in water at 298.15 K, the standard enthalpy of formation, lattice energy, lattice enthalpy and standard enthalpy of dehydration have been determined as -(1747.84.8), -2394, -2414 and 313.6 kJ mol−1 respectively.

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Authors: Guo Jin-xin, Cui Yu, Song Xin-yu, Li Xue-mei, Sun Xuan, Fan Wei-liu, Sun Guo-xin and Sun Si-xiu

Abstract  

Interfacial tension and interfacial adsorption parameters for benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in three organic diluents were determined and interpreted. The interfacial activity of BODMAC is affected by the type of the organic diluent and the composition of the aqueous phase. The general order of interfacial activity of BODMAC is n-heptane (5% isobutanol) > carbon tetrachloride > chloroform. The effectiveness of adsorption of BODMAC is not only dependent on the organic diluent, but also on the inorganic electrolytes in the aqueous phase.

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Authors: Q. Chen, J. Song, W.P. Du, L.Y. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, M. Zhang and G.R. Yu

Chinese endemic wheat landraces possess unique morphological features and desirable traits, useful for wheat breeding. It is important to clarify the relationship among these landraces. In this study, 21 accessions of the four Chinese endemic wheat landrace species were investigated using single-copy genes encoding plastid Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk-1) in order to estimate their phylogenetic relationship. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian, and TCS network and gene flow values. The A and B genome sequences from the Pgk-1 loci indicated that three accessions of Triticum petropavlovskyi were clustered into the same subclade, and the T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and the Sichuan white wheat accessions were grouped into a separate subclade. Based on the Acc-1 gene, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense were grouped into one subclade in the A genome; the B genome from T. petropavlovskyi and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum, and the Sichuan white wheat complex and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum were grouped in the same clades. The D genome of T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense clustered with T. petropavlovskyi. Our findings suggested that (1) T. petropavlovskyi is distantly related to the Sichuan white wheat complex; (2) T. petropavlovskyi, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense are closely related; (3) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum is closely related to T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense and the Sichuan white wheat complex; and (4) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum may be an ancestor of Chinese endemic wheat landraces.

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