Despite the extensive studies conducted in the field of nanotechnology based on US patent data, the choice of a single database may impede a wider view of this technology frontier. Based on patent data from the Derwent Innovation Index database that covers the data of 41 major patent offices, we review the development of nanotechnology patenting from the dimensions of patenting authority and technological classification. We find that a small number of countries dominating the technology have similar technological diversity in terms of nanotechnology patents. After the discussion and summary of the citation modes and citation rate curve, we construct the patent citation networks at the patent document level and discuss the distinctive transnational citation patterns. We then use Search Path Count Method to extract the technological trajectory, where we find very high selectiveness. In the final section of this paper, we discover the small world phenomenon in the citation networks, which is widely investigated in undirected networks such as co-authorship networks, but rarely touched in citation networks due to the limitations of the presumptions. We propose the reachable path length and citation clustering in the revised small world model for acyclic directed networks and provide the realistic meaning of the new measures.
Slow pyrolysis of walnut shell which is a cheap and abundantly available solid waste was carried out using thermogravimetric
analysis. The effects of raw material heating rate on the pyrolysis properties and kinetic parameters were investigated. A
two-step consecutive reaction model were used to simulate the pyrolysis process. The kinetic parameters were established by
using the pattern search method. Comparison between experimental data and the model prediction indicated that the two-step
consecutive reaction model can better describe the slow pyrolysis of walnut shell as the formation of an intermediate during
the pyrolysis process was taken into account.
This paper relates the quantum–mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to the radiocarbon dating method by
Eq. 9, and also shows the significant influence of temperature on the method. It is suggested that the correction is a function
of the frequencies and temperature of a specific sample and these two variables can be evaluated theoretically by the ab initio
quantum calculations and experimentally by analyzing the clumped-isotope ratios in it, respectively. This paper also suggests
that the 14C/12C ratio in the atmosphere in geological time can be calculated by Eq. 10.
Co-authored publications across sectors have been used as indicators of the triple helix model and more generally for the
study of science–technology relations. However, how to measure the relationships among the three or more sectors is a technically
difficult issue. Using mutual information as an indicator has proved to be effective, but it is not widely used. In this paper,
we introduced φ coefficients and partial correlation as conventional indicators to measure the relationships among sectors
on the basis of Japanese publication data in the ISI-databases. We also proposed a new approach of graphical modeling based
on partial correlation for studying university–industry–government relationships and relationships with other sectors. The
conventional indicators give results that are consistent with mutual information, which shows that collaborations among the
three national sectors (U, I, G) are getting weaker and that members of these sectors tend to collaborate much more with foreign
researchers. It is also shown that universities used to play the central role in the national publication system and acted
as a bridge between national sectors and foreign researchers. However, since 2000, the situation has been changing. The center
of the Japanese research network is becoming more “foreign” oriented.
Barium benzoate was synthesized in a hydrothermal reaction. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. It was monoclinic and had a layered structure. The mechanism of thermal decomposition of the barium benzoate was studied by using TG, DTA, IR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In a nitrogen atmosphere, the barium benzoate decomposed to form BaCO3 and organic compounds: mainly benzophenone, triphenylmethane, etc.
This paper empirically examines the relationship between research commercialization, entrepreneurial commitment, and knowledge
production and diffusion in academia. Through a dataset of 229 academic patent inventors, this paper reveals that the effects
of research commercialization on publication quantity, application-oriented research, and disclosure delay are moderated by
the entrepreneurial commitment of faculty members. This paper concludes that encouraging entrepreneurial commitment of faculty
members may possibly drive academics away from their traditional approaches in producing and diffusing knowledge.