24 male autopsy cases aged 35–60 years have been collected from Shanghai China to study the relationships between human hair and internal tissues. Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analyzed. A radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) based on a simple group extraction scheme was used for measuring the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn. Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate Zn(DDC)2 and methly isobutyl ketone-iodide have been chosen as reagent. Trace element of Se was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). A SLOWPOKE reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 8·1011 n·cm–2·s–1 and a swimming pool type reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1·1013 n·cm–2·s–1 were used for short and long irradiation of samples, respectively. The reliability of methods has been checked by analyzing biological standard reference materials Horse Kidney (IAEA H8), Tomato Leaves (NBS 1573) and Human Hair (NIES-5). The analytical results show that toxic elements As, Cd and Hg exist in a larger individual variability than the essential elements of Cu, Se and Zn for each tissue. A linear regression analysis related to the six elements of primary interest for the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP) has been done by a computer program for each pair of hair-tissue. A positive correlation is found between concentration of As in hair and kidney-cortex, the correlation coefficient r is 0.751 (p<0.01). Positive correlations between concentration of Se in hair and liver, kidney-cortex and lung are also observed in this study. It shows that the elements As and Se in hair may be useful indicators for assessing certain internal tissues of normal persons. A comparison of Cd concentration in lung shows a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. A significant correlation between element Cd and Zn in kidney-cortex is also presented in this paper.
Twenty four male autopsies were obtained from Shanghai, China. The samples of liver, lung, kidney cortex, brain and scalp hair were collected from the autopsies. The elements As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Se and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The present study shows the distribution of the elements in different tissues and provides the element level for normal persons in the local area. In general, the results are comparable with those of other countries.
In this work, a simple group separation scheme based on extraction for NAA determination of trace of As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn in biological materials is described. For this purpose, zinc-diethyldithiocarbamate, Zn(DDC)2, and methyl isobutyl ketone-iodide have been chosen as reagents. The elements can be extracted successively and quantitatively from strong mineral acids without adjusting pH of the solution, and separated into two groups suitable for gamma-ray spectrometry. Samples of 100–200 mg dry weight were double-sealed into polyethylene bags and irradiated in a swimming pool reactor with a thermal neutron flux of 1013n·cm–2·s–1 for 44 hours. After a cooling period of 1–3 days, the samples were digested with microgram quantities of carrier in concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 150°C for 3.5 hours in a teflon bomb, then extracted as described above. The reliability of the analytical method was checked using reference materials Horse Kidney IAEA H-8, Human Hair NIES-5 and Tomato Leaves NBS-1573. Most of the results obtained for reference materials agreed with the certified values12. Chinese autopsy samples of hair and liver were presented.
During a five-year period, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) to investigate the quantitative relationship between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. The use of nuclear-related analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray emission and radiotracers, was emphasized. One aspect of the CRP focused on studies in man, using autopsy cases, of mineral distribution in five tissues, i.e. liver, kidney, lung, brain and bone in addition to hair, and the elements of primary importance were As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn. Emphasis was placed on analytical quality assurance. Hair and internal tissue samples were obtained from subjects from Bulgaria, China, the former German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Japan, Norway and Sweden.