Earlier studies have corroborated that human translation exhibits unique linguistic features, usually referred to as translationese. However, research on machine translationese, in spite of some sparse efforts, is still in its infancy. By comparing machine translation with human translation and original target language texts, this study aims to investigate if machine translation has unique linguistic features of its own too, to what extent machine translations are different from human translations and target-language originals, and what characteristics are typical of machine translations. To this end, we collected a corpus containing English translations of modern Chinese literary texts produced by neural machine translation systems and human professional translators and comparable original texts in the target language. Based on the corpus, a quantitative study of discourse coherence was conducted by observing metrics in three dimensions borrowed from Coh-Metrix, including connectives, latent semantic analysis and the situation/mental model. The results support the existence of translationese in both human and machine translations when they are compared with original texts. However, machine translationese is not the same as human translationese in some metrics of discourse coherence. Additionally, machine translation systems, such as Google and DeepL, when compared with each other, show unique features in some coherence metrics, although on the whole they are not significantly different from each other in those coherence metrics.
To explore if translation-intrinsic features are apparent in other types of bilingualism-influenced constrained language use such as non-native production, this study approaches syntactic and typological properties of constrained English translated from Chinese and written by native Chinese speakers via two cognitively-motivated dependency metrics, viz. mean dependency distance (MDD) and dependency direction (DDir). Results of this study show that translated English (both L1 and L2) and non-native English differ from the non-constrained native English in a similar way yet to a slightly different extent, but not from each other in both indicators. Syntactically, bilingually-constrained varieties exhibit reduced syntactic complexity with shorter MDDs, suggesting a simplification tendency. Typologically, cross-linguistic influences are detected in constrained varieties for being more head-final in word-order primed by the source or native language Chinese. Surprisingly, it seems that language directionality affects, albeit marginally, the affinity between constrained varieties, with non-native English being more syntactically and typologically similar to translated English from L1 than from L2.
A rapid, simple, and sensitive method has been developed for the analysis of pyrethroid herbicides in fruits by using headspace in-tube microextraction (HS-ITME) coupled with reverse-flow micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (RF-MECC). In the newly developed method, by placing a capillary filled with background electrolyte (BGE) of RF-MECC in the HS above the sample solution, the pyrethroid herbicides were extracted into the acceptor phase in the capillary. After extraction, electrophoresis of the extracts in the capillary was carried out. The influence of some essential BGE components such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and organic modifiers concentrations was investigated. Extraction parameters were also systematically investigated, including the extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, and volume of the sample solution. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors for three pyrethroids were 309, 133, and 288, respectively. The proposed method provided a good linearity, low limits of detection (below 1.00 ng/mL), and good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviations [RSDs] below 7.83%, n = 6). The fruit samples were analyzed by the proposed method, and the obtained results indicated that the proposed method provides acceptable recoveries and precisions.
Atractylodis exerted a variety of pharmacological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-aging effects etc. The major ingredients of Atractylodis are atractylenolide I and II that exhibited activities in anti-inflammatory and anticancer. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method for determination of atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma was developed. The UPLC–MS/MS method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability with a total run time of 4.0 min. After addition of atractylenolide III as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 231.1 → 185.1 for atractylenolide I, m/z 233.1 → 91.0 for II, and m/z 249.0 → 231.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 1–1000 ng/mL for atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma ranged from 86.2% to 96.3%. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precision was both less than 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 91.0% and 109.0%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of atractylenolide I and II after intravenous administration in rats.
Previous studies on smartphone use motivation (SUM) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) have been limited in the utilization of regional samples of emerging adults (e.g., college students) and also in the foci on the direct association between SUM and PSU. To address such gaps, using data from a large, national representative sample of Chinese young adolescents and their parents this study examined the associations between adolescents' various types of SUM and their PSU, and also tested the potential mediating roles of smartphone use time (SUT) that adolescents spent on various activities in such associations.
A nationwide representative sample of 8,261 Chinese adolescents (Mage = 12.86 years old, SD = 1.76; 42.6% females) and their parents (49% mothers) participated in this survey study.
Instrumental SUM (i.e., to expand knowledge or acquire information) was associated negatively with PSU via longer SUT spent on learning and shorter SUT spent on entertainment and communication. Self-expression SUM (i.e., to gain acceptance and recognition of others by maintaining or improving self-images) was associated with longer SUT spent on both learning and entertainment, which, in turn, predicted lower and higher levels of PSU, respectively. Last, hedonic SUM (i.e., to gain pleasure) was associated positively with PSU via longer SUT spent on entertainment and communication.
These findings contribute to the literature by adding greater specificity in our understanding of the implications of SUM and SUT in the etiology of PSU during the critical life stage of adolescence in a Chinese cultural context.