China's economy and technology have experienced spectacular growth since the Opening-up Policy adopted in 1978. In order to explore the innovation process and development of China, this study examines the inventive activities and the collaboration pattern of university, industry and government (UIG) in China. This study analyzes the Chinese patent data retrieved from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Three models of UIG relations which represent different triple helix configurations are introduced. According to the property of patent assignee, patent ownership can be divided into three types: individuals, enterprises, and universities and research institutes. Furthermore, enterprises can be classified into state-owned enterprise (SOE), private-owned enterprise (POE) and foreign enterprise (FE). The corresponding relationship of patent ownership with UIG is set up. Through analyzing the issued year, it is found that the inventive activities of China have experienced three developmental phases and have been promoted quickly in recent years. The achievement of innovation activities in China primarily falls on the enterprise, especially FEs and POEs. The innovation strengths of the three development phases have shifted from government to university and research institute and then industry. According to co-patent analysis, it is found that the collaboration between university and industry is the strongest and has been intensified in recent years, but other forms of collaboration among UIG have been weak. In addition, an innovation relation model of China was set up. The evolution process of innovation systems was explored, from etatistic model, followed by improved “laissez-faire” model, and then shifting toward triple helix model.
Since China adopted Open-Up and Reformed Policy for global collaboration, China's science and technology have experienced an astounding growth. Papers and patents encompass valuable scientific and technological (S&T) information and collaborative efforts. This article studies China's international S&T collaboration from the perspective of paper and patent analysis. The results show that China's total papers and patents have continuously increased from 2004 to 2008, the papers and patents resulting from China's international collaboration also present a steady growth. However, there is a decline in the share of international collaboration papers and patents with a certain range due to the rapid independent R&D. China's international scientific collaboration (ISC) is broadly distributed over many countries, the USA being the most important ISC partners. China's international technological collaboration (ITC) is mainly carried out with USA and Taiwan, and Taiwan has been the most significant ITC partner of when taking countries’ patent output into account. Besides, ISC shows a continuous raise of Chinese papers’ citation. Even the countries with a small amount of papers and ISC with China, exert a positive influence on the impact of citation of Chinese papers as well. However, ITC does not always play an active role in the improvement of citation impact of Chinese patents.
Authors:Jia Zheng, Zhi-yun Zhao, Xu Zhang, Dar-zen Chen, Mu-hsuan Huang, Xiao-ping Lei, Ze-yu Zhang, Yun-hua Zhao and Run-sheng Liu
Patents are the manifestation of the industry's research and development (R&D) endeavor; therefore, this paper studies the industry evolution of and key technologies in China from the perspective of patent analysis. Patents in six types of industries, including Chemical (excluding Drugs), Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics (E&E), Mechanical, and Others are analyzed in this study. Findings from the analysis show a steady increase of US granted utility patents in China as well as percentage of these patents in the world over the period between 2003 and 2008. All the above industries in China have been growing rapidly during this period, which is very different from the global industry development. Despite the rapid development, the citation rates of these patents have been low, reflecting a need for improvement in the quality of patents and R&D performance for these six industries in China in order to exert more influence in the industry world. The analysis on patents also reveals China's industry distribution to be similar to the global industry distribution, with the exception of E&E industry which weights over one third of the total patents in technologies. The E&E industry is also the field with largest economic growth which rises more rapidly after 2006 with a sudden increase of patents in USPC 361. Detailed tracking of the key technology evolution reveals that 90% of the newly issued patents in USPC 361 after 2006 are owned by Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd, pointing to an unbalanced R&D environment in China's E&E industry sector. By providing the insight into the evolution of China's industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis, this paper hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for future policy directions and academic researches.
Authors:Huan Meng, Zhen Chen, Gengmei Xing, Hui Yuan, Chunying Chen, Feng Zhao, Chengcheng Zhang, Yun Wang and Yuliang Zhao
Recently, it was reported that the toxicity of copper particles increases with the decrease of the particle size on a mass
basis. To understand this phenomenon, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques and in vitro chemical
studies were carried out to explore how they produce toxicity in vivo. The results suggest that when the sizes of particles
become small and down to a nanoscale, copper becomes extremely reactive in a simulative intracorporeal environment. The nanosized
copper particles consume the hydrogen ions in stomach more quickly than micron ones. These processes further convert the copper
nanoparticles into cupric ions whose toxicity is very high in vivo.
Nanosized copper particles are widely used in fields of lubricants, polymers/plastic, metallic coating and ink. Recently,
we found that copper particles in different sizes can lead to different toxicological effects. To clarify the target organs
of copper particles of different sizes, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was employed to evaluate
the distribution of copper in different organs of mice after a single dose oral exposure. The results suggest that the main
target organs for copper nanoparticles are kidney, liver and blood. Liver is the main damaged organ.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is divided into three subfields, including Chinese medicine, Chinese herb and acupuncture, attracts increasing attentions due to its challenging and significant medical values. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity in TCM field as well as its subfields. The data are retrieved from the Science Citation Index Expanded database during 1980–2009, and 16,536 papers are identified for analysis. Generally speaking, proportions of papers in subfield of acupuncture decreased dramatically, while the proportions of papers of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb rose increasingly. This study finds that East Asia has the largest number of TCM papers, followed by North America and Europe. Furthermore, while China is ranked first in terms of the amount of TCM publications, USA gains the highest percentage of citations. As for regional specialty, mainly, scholars in East Asia publish intensively in Chinese medicine, while most of the scholars in North America and Europe probe into the study of acupuncture. In the latest two decades, China took the first place over Japan in subfields of both Chinese medicine and Chinese herb, while the US has always kept the largest share in acupuncture with a marked upward trend. Regarding the top-ranked TCM institution, Chinese Academy of Sciences located in China, is ranked first in the subfields of Chinese medicine and Chinese herb as well. As for Kyung Hee University, which is located in South Korea, is ranked first in the number of acupuncture papers and Harvard University is ranked first in number of acupuncture citations.
Authors:Yun Zhao, Ajay Singh, Seungwook Jang, Anjie Wang and Dong-Pyo Kim
Plain and N-doped carbonaceous particles are synthesized from biomass resources such as glucose via continuous hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process at 200 °C and 250 psi for the first time using a microfluidic system in a fast and continuous manner. The continuous HTC is controlled by reaction time (3.7–30 min) and concentration (0–10 wt.%) of ethylenediamine as a nitrogen additive to produce a series of the plain carbonaceous and N-doped carbonaceous particles with size range from 0.8 to 1.2 um. The as-synthesized and the pyrolyzed particles are characterized by various analytical instruments to understand their chemical structures with elemental compositions, morphology of particles, and thermal defunctionalization.
This study applies bibliometric analysis to investigate the quantity and citation impact of scientific papers in the field of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data are collected from 19 CAM journals in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) database during 1980–2009, and 17,002 papers are identified for analysis. The study analyzes the document types, geographical and institutional distribution of the authorship, including international scientific collaboration. This study suggests that the major type of document is original article. The CAM papers are mostly published by North America, East Asia, and European countries, of which publications authored in East Asia are cited most. Country-wise, major contributors of CAM papers are from USA, People's Republic of China, India, England and Germany. India has the highest CPP value, attracting high attentions in CAM community. This article also finds that international co-authorship in the CAM field has increased rapidly during this period. In addition, internationally collaborated publications generate higher citation impact than papers published by authors from single country. Finally, the research identifies productive institutions in CAM, and China Medical University located in Taiwan is the most productive organization.
Acupuncture, the most important nonpharmacological therapy in traditional Chinese medicine, has attracted significant attention since its introduction to the Western world. This study employs bibliometric analysis to examine the profile of publication activity related to it. The data are retrieved from the database of Science Citation Index Expanded during 1980–2009, and 7,592 papers are identified for analysis. This study finds that almost 20 % of papers are published in CAM journals, and the average cited times per acupuncture paper is 8.69. While the most cited article has been cited 2,109 times, however, 38.15 % of total publications have never been cited. Europe has the largest amount of authored papers with high h-index values; the USA has the largest number of publications on and citations of acupuncture based on country distribution, and this has continued as a significant rising trend. The proportion of collaborative papers shows this upward trend on the worldwide scale while the percentage shares of national collaborations are the highest. The USA produces the most international collaborative documents, although South Korea occupies the highest percentage figure for international collaborative papers. International collaborative papers are the most frequently cited. The average number of authors per paper is 3.69 in the top eight countries/regions. Papers contributed by South Korea are authored by the most people. International collaboration papers are authored by more people, except in Taiwan. South Korea's Kyung Hee University is ranked first in terms of number of papers while Harvard University in the USA accounts for the largest proportion of citations. The University of Exeter, Harvard University and Karolinska Institute have the highest h-index values.
Authors:Guo Jin-xin, Sun Xuan, Yin Zhi-lei, Li Xue-mei, Yu Hai-yun, Yang Yan-zhao and Sun Si-xiu
The mechanism of solvent extraction of gold(III) in hydrochloric acid media with quaternary ammonium salt octadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride dissolved in chloroform was studied. The influences of temperature, NaCl and HCl concentraction on the extraction equilibrium were also investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic (
H° = -28.53±0.15 kJ/mol) and log Kex = 5.47±0.04.