The national soil-mapping project initiated and led by Kreybig was unique being a national, large-scale survey based on field and laboratory soil analysis and in the meantime serving practical purposes. By its completion, in the early 1950s, Hungary was the first country in the world having such detailed soil information for the whole country. The Kreybig maps are still timely, because the temporal changes in the mapped soil characteristics are not significant. The GIS adaptation of information originating from this survey is under construction, but there is more utilizable information originating from this survey, than it was published in the map series and in reports, and what is provided by simply archiving them digitally. Compilation of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System as a national spatial soil information system involves both its integration within appropriate spatial data infrastructure and updating with efficient field correlation, which make an inherent refinement and upgrading of the system possible. The field-based updating of DKSIS using field GIS technology by the implication of recent data collected at revisited sites makes the comparison of archived and newly surveyed soil state possible. This, in one hand, should be recorded in the database by updating it. On the other hand, trends can be identified in soil characteristics, thus processes can be realized and/or forecasted. Based on the upgraded database we produce soil maps (i) displaying recent state of soils (ii) with increased accuracy and (iii) according to the soil-mapping concept elaborated by Kreybig et al.
Climate change is expected to have a vigorous impact on soils and ecosystems due to elevated temperature and changes in precipitation (amount and frequency), thereby altering biogeochemical and hydrological cycles. Several phenomena associated with climate change and anthropogenic activity affect soils indirectly via ecosystem functioning (such as higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and N deposition). Continuous interactions between climate and soils determine the transformation and transport processes. Long-term gradual changes in abiotic environmental factors alter naturally occurring soil forming processes by modifying the soil water regime, mineral composition evolution, and the rate of organic matter formation and degradation. The resulting physical and chemical soil properties play a fundamental role in the productivity and environmental quality of cultivated land, so it is crucial to evaluate the potential outcomes of climate change and soil interactions. This paper attempts to review the underlying long-term processes influenced by different aspects of climate change. When considering major soil forming factors (climate, parent material, living organisms, topography), especially climate, we put special attention to soil physical properties (soil structure and texture, and consequential changes in soil hydrothermal regime), soil chemical properties (e.g. cation exchange capacity, soil organic matter content as influenced by changes in environmental conditions) and soil degradation as a result of longterm soil physicochemical transformations. The temperate region, specifically the Carpathian Basin as a heterogeneous territory consisting of different climatic and soil zones from continental to mountainous, is used as an example to present potential changes and to assess the effect of climate change on soils. The altered physicochemical and biological properties of soils require accentuated scientific attention, particularly with respect to significant feedback processes to climate and soil services such as food security.