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Since percussion started to be a method forgotten and not trusted by many practitioners, the aim of the study was to demonstrate whether this procedure could deliver exact data if done accurately and by a practised examiner. The trial presented here included 31 healthy warm-blooded horses. Percussion of the area of cardiac dullness and then echocardiographic imaging of the same region were performed. To obtain the relevant measurement points, the 4th and 5th intercostal spaces (ICS) were used on the left and the 4th ICS on the right side. On the left side, the dorsal border of cardiac dullness was determined in the 4th ICS (1st point). Then the ventral border of the cardiac dullness was determined at the same place (2nd point). This was followed by the examination of the same points in the 5th ICS (3rd and 4th points). The following step was to measure the distance of these points from the ventral border of the thorax, and also that between the 2nd and the 4th points. On the right side the same procedure was used in the 4th ICS only. Mean values/standard errors (in cm) of absolute values of differences between percussional and echocardiographic measurements were as follow. Left side, 4th ICS, dorsal border: 0.8/0.1; ventral border: 0.7/0.1; 5th ICS, dorsal border: 0.8/0.1, ventral border: 0.9/0.2; right side, 4th ICS, dorsal border: 0.8/0.2; ventral border: 0.7/0.1. Due to the close correlation between the results of the two techniques, it is reasonable to consider cardiac percussion as an integrated part of the physical examination.

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Sexual reproduction plays an essential role in the propagation of Angiosperms. Fertilisation takes place in the embryo sac, which is usually deeply encased in the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. In contrast to animals and primitive plants, the mechanism of egg cell activation in flowering plants has not been discovered fully because of the inaccessibility and complexity of the process of double fertilisation. However, recent advances in plant cell and molecular biology have brought new, powerful technologies to investigate and micromanipulate the reproductive cells of flowering plants including cereal crops. An experimental approach based on various micromanipulation techniques involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and microinjection procedures is now available in more and more laboratories. Despite some limitations this offers new possibilities to study cellular and subcellular events preceding or occurring during or after egg cell activation and early embryonic development. Recent achievements in the field of wheat egg cell micromanipulation are presented in this paper.

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The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thoracic percussion and ultrasonography with the help of distance measurements and statistical methods in the determination of the caudal lung border in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Examinations were performed on 11 healthy, warm-blooded horses of different breeds, age and grade of disease. First, the caudal lung border was determined by the traditional indirect percussion method in the 10th, 12th, 14th and 16th intercostal spaces at the end of inspiration and expiration on both sides of the thorax. To apply standardised measurements, a fix point was chosen as described earlier by the same authors for healthy horses. The distance between this point and the caudal lung border was measured with a tape-measure. Percussion was followed by ultrasonographic determination of the caudal lung border. Measurements were performed in the same way as described for the percussion technique. Mean values and standard errors of absolute values of differences between percussion and ultrasonographic measurements were the following, in centimetres (10th, 12th, 14th and 16th intercostal spaces). Left side expiration: 1.4, 0.4; 0.8, 0.2; 0.9, 0.2; 0.8, 0.4; left side inspiration: 0.8, 0.3; 1.5, 0.3; 1.4, 0.3; 1.1, 0.3; right side expiration: 2.1, 1.0; 2.1, 0.5; 1.6, 0.5; 0.8, 0.1; right side inspiration: 1.5, 0.7; 1.2, 0.6; 0.8, 0.2; 0.8, 0.3, respectively. Ultrasonography proved to be reliable in determining the caudal lung borders in horses with RAO. Results of the percussion examination did not differ significantly from those of the ultrasound method which was used as a reference technique. The differences between inspiration and expiration were greater in horses with RAO than in healthy horses in a previous study. Based on these results, percussion can be used as an integrated part of the physical examination in diagnosing caudal shift of the caudal lung border of horses suffering from RAO.

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The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of healthy Standardbred trotters not published previously. Twenty-three clinically normal horses weighing between 350 and 490 kg were examined in the same manner: first a thorough physical and then detailed echocardiographic examination were performed. Standardised two-dimensional (2D) and guided M-mode echocardiographic imaging techniques were used to measure interventricular septal thickness (IVS), left ventricular internal diameter (LVID), left ventricular wall thickness (LVW), left atrial internal diameter (LAID) in end-systole (s) and end-diastole (d) and aortic diameter (AOD) in end-diastole. Mean, range and standard deviation of the different parameters were calculated. The mean values (in centimetres) were as follow (2D/M-mode): IVSs: 4.6/4.7; IVSd: 3.1/3.0; LVIDs: 7.0/7.0; LVIDd: 10.7/10.7; LVWs: 3.9/3.9; LVWd: 2.7/2.7; LAIDs: 10.4/-; LAIDd: 11.3/-; AODd: 7.2/-. Results of two-dimensional and M-mode measurements were compared to each other and to normal values obtained from other breeds.

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: E Burgettiné Böszörményi, S Németh, A Fodor, K Bélafiné Bakó, D Vozik, Z Csima, and I Barcs


The prevalence of invasive fungal diseases shows an increasing trend. Due to the frequent but unprofessional usage of antifungal medications, the fungi show decreasing susceptibility towards these agents and this trend may lead to the emergence of resistant pathogens. There is a great need to develop antifungal medications with new mechanisms. One of these options is to apply proteins with natural antifungal effects. The objective was to measure the antifungal efficacy of Xenorhabdus budapestensis in vitro on clinical Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida lusitaniae, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata). Materials and methods: We defined the sensitivity of the Candida species towards antibiotics. We conducted agar diffusion tests with the cleaned biopreparation of X. budapestensis (100%) and its dilutions (80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%). Zones of inhibition were measured after 24, 48, and 96 hr.


Most of the tested Candida species have shown sensitivity to the biopreparation and its 40% dilution. The area of the zones of inhibition did not decrease after several days. The most sensitive species was C. lusitaniae and the least sensitive was C. krusei.


We assume that the proteins produced by X. budapestensis have antifungal effect, as the area of the zones of inhibition did not change.

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Six pieces of grafts, 6.5 mm in diameter, 20 mm in length, were taken from each of 170 cadaver hindlimbs, using the cranial surface of the medial femoral trochlea for harvesting. The age of the horses varied between 4 months and 23 years. 30 limbs under the age of 12 years were selected for transplantation. Three of six grafts were transplanted into the medial femoral condyle using different combinations of tunnel depth and dilation. With ageing, a significant decline in transplantability was detected. In general, mosaicplasty cannot be recommended in horses above 11 years. Based on a previous clinical case (Bodo et al., 2000), a good surface alignment was indeed achieved with a combination of graft length drilling and dilation in most cases. However, the occasional entrapment of cartilage debris under the graft prevented perfect alignment in the present cadaver study in 27% of the grafts transplanted in this manner. Since the protrusion of grafts never exceeded 1.5 mm, we conclude that drilling 3–5 mm deeper than graft length with graft length deep dilation can avoid disadvantageous protrusion of the transplanted hyaline cartilage caps, achieving bone decompression at the same time.

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