Intact chloroplasts were isolated from mesophyll protoplasts of Brassia napus. Concentrations of 8 rare earth elements (REEs) in the chloroplasts were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results showed that there were trace amounts of REEs in the chloroplasts, which corresponded to 1 atom of REEs per 2000 chlorophyll molecules. About 30% of the total REEs in the leaves are localized in the chloroplasts and the light REEs were enriched with respect to the heavy elements of the series.
Authors:Z. Zhang, Y. Wang, F. Li, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
The contents of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu) in various plant species taken from a rare earth ore area were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For a given plant, the REE patterns in root, leaf and host soil are different from each other. The REE distribution characteristics in roots of various species are very similar and resemble those in the surface water. The results of this study suggest that there is no significant fractionation between the REEs during their uptake by the plant roots from soil solution. However, the variation of the relative abundance of individual REE occurs in the process of transportation and deposition of REEs in plants.
Authors:Z. Zhang, F. Li, L. Xu, N. Liu, H. Xiao, and Z. Chai
Chemical behavior of lanthanum in root tips excized from wheat seedlings growing at both promotional and inhibitory levels of LaCl3 in culture solutions was investigated by a sequential leaching procedure combined with instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results indicate that most of La exists in non-exchangeable species and the binding of La3+ to the root tips is extremely stable. The root tips during growing at the inhibitory level of LaCl3 absorb much more La than those at the promotional level. However, the La proportion in each fraction is similar for both groups.
Authors:C. Chai, X. Mao, Z. Liu, H. Fu, F. Zhang, F. Chang, and C. Wang
Ca-47 radioactive tracer was used to determine the phamocodynamics, distribution pattern, absorption and bioavailability of a new type calcium supplement in rabbit prepared by plasma technology. Our results indicate that calcium from the new nutrient is mainly deposited in bone 6 or 7 days after oral administration. The absorption rate of this new calcium preparation is estimated to be 30–40 %.
Authors:F. Zhang, N. Q. Liu, W. Y. Feng, X. F. Wang, Y. Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. F. Chai
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are one of most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. The nuclear analytical methods
(ENAA, SRXRF and XRF) were employed to study the effect of iodine deficiency on the metal ion changes during the stage of
brain development, combined with biochemical methods. The results show that the distributions of iron, copper and zinc varied
to different extent in different brain regions and subcellular fractions of the ID rat brains. These distributional changes
of trace elements might be associated with the brain damage caused by the iodine deficiency.
Authors:F. Zhang, W. Feng, J. Shi, M. Wang, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Chai
The damage in the pup rat brain with low-level mercury exposure, and the concentration variation of trace elements in the
rat hippocampus was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF). Meanwhile, the levels and activities
of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA)
in the hippocampus were also measured. The results showed that the low dose of inorganic mercury prenatal and postnatal exposure
could lead to the significant increase of both copper and zinc contents and remarkable decrease of iron content in pup rat
brain. Compared to the control group, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GSH-Px, SOD, the contents of GSH and MDA
in the pup rat hippocampus of mercury-exposed group fell down obviously.
Authors:Y. Song, D. D. Xu, Z. F. Chai, H. Ouyang, W. Y. Feng, and X. Y. Mao
PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously in Beijing, China, and analyzed by INAA and ICP-MS. Seasonal variations of the concentrations
of ambient particles and their elemental compositions were found. The main sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in spring were the crust, coal burning and vehicle exhaust, in which the former was significant. During a strong dust storm,
the concentrations of the crustal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 increased remarkably, but the concentrations of some anthropogenic elements decreased. The enrichment factors of these anthropogenic
elements also decreased sharply during the dust storm, which indicated that they were mostly originated from local anthropogenic
pollution and diluted by the huge amount of dust.
Authors:L. Feng, H. Xiao, X. He, Z. Li, F. Li, N. Liu, Z. Chai, Y. Zhao, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Zhang
To investigate the effects of lanthanum exposure on regional distribution of inorganic elements in rat brain. Wistar rats
were exposed to lanthanum chloride through oral administration at 0, 0.1, 2, and 40 mg/kg concentration for 6 months. The
elements such as Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were identified in the brain slices by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence
(SRXRF) analysis. Differences of brain elemental distributions were noticed. Cl, Ca, and Zn were primarily concentrated in
hippocampus of the controls. With the increase of the lanthanum dosage, the Ca and Zn levels significantly decreased, while
the Cu levels significantly elevated in cortex, hippocampus and thalamus. Our results suggest that subchronic lanthanum exposure
in rats appears to change elemental distributions in brain.
Authors:W. Xiong, R.Q. Yan, Y.N. Liu, S.W. Peng, Z.Z. Jiang, X. Chai, A.D. Qi, and Y.F. Wang
Compound danshen preparations (CDPs) are used clinically for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. By using the quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker (QAMS) method, sixteen compounds (danshensu, protocatechuic acid, protocatechuicaldehyde, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, notoginsenoside R1, salvianolic acid B, ginsenoside Rg1, ginsenoside Re, salvianolic acid A, salvianolic acid C, ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rd, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA were quantified on an ACQUITY ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) HSS T3 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) using a gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.30 mL/min in 30 min at 30°C, which was also validated by UPLC-diode array detection (DAD) and UPLC-electrospray ionization multistage/mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for assuring the feasibility and accuracy. Tested by robustness experiment under slightly changeable conditions, the stability of relative correction factor (RCF) proved to be stable, with RSDs below 5.69%, except for notoginsenoside R1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) 7.83%. This reliable and convenient QAMS method resolved the problem of standard substance insufficiency and improved the quality assessment of preparations consisting of complex compounds with different chemical structures, such as CDPs.