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In our long-term experiment the analyses of stability were conducted in one shorter (years 2001–2003) and one longer (years 1994–2003) periods by using different numbers (2–6) of varieties in each one of the periods. The results of our research proved that the method, applied can be efficiently used to analyse the environmental responses, the behaviour under varying environmental conditions of different varieties. Varieties can adapt themselves differently to favourable and unfavourable environmental conditions. In general, varieties (e.g. older varieties, like Mv 15, Mv 20, and new varieties, like Lupus, Mv Emese) that give relatively good yields under unfavourable conditions (2–3 t ha −1 environmental average) will utilise improving environmental conditions (7–8 t ha −1 environmental average) to a lesser extent and vice versa. Varieties Mv 21, GK Öthalom and Mv Palotás (a currently cultivated variety) made good use of intensive growing conditions. The data in this paper may assist in choosing varieties best suited to the production and cultivation conditions of the production site.By applying stability analyses we proved that the stability of the control treatment was the most favourable over the investigation period, which good yield stability, however, manifested at very low yield levels. Our findings showed that under more intensive environmental conditions (7–9 t ha −1 yield level) appropriate and optimum fertilizer application was very effective and in comparison to the control treatment the yield differences between optimal fertilizer treatments were up to as much as 1–6 t ha −1 . Under favourable environmental conditions the highest yields were obtained when a fertilizer ratio of N 120 +PK was applied. Under unfavourable conditions (these may be either or both ecological and cultivation conditions), however, only retrained, moderate fertilizer doses are recommended. Under extremely unfavourable conditions (very dry cropping year) the linear regression curves for fertilizer treatments were below those of the control treatments, which referred to yield depressions due to water deficiency.

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The appearance of Fusarium species and the micronutrient content of pea varieties were investigated in different plant development periods. Field experiments were carried out for three years on six dry pea varieties grown without irrigation on a soil infected with Fusarium species. Green and dry plants divided into shoots (including stems and leaves), pods and seeds were used to determine the presence of Fusarium species and the concentration of micro- and macroelements. In the green shoots and seeds of varieties registered as susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum, other species such as F. solani and F. culmorum were also detected. F. oxysporum and F. solani were found in the dry seeds not only in varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum but in resistant ones as well. In the case of susceptible varieties the phosphorus and nickel contents in the flowering plants decreased significantly compared to those in varieties registered as resistant to F. oxysporum. In later stages of plant development the K and Mo contents increased significantly in the green shoots and the accumulation of Mn and Mo in the green seeds intensified. The very low B concentration in the dry pods contributed to the internal infection of dry seeds by decreasing the stability of the cell wall. In the dry seeds of varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum a considerable decrease in the S content was found parallel with marked increases in the Mo and Mn contents. The sugar content of green seeds decreased significantly in peas susceptible to F. oxysporum, but neither the protein, nor the starch or sugar contents of the dry seeds decreased in comparison to the resistant ones.

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As regards wheat varieties constituting a natural ploid series the issue of analysing diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species is tropical since ancient varieties can play significant roles in contemporary agriculture as well. Seventeen winter wheat varieties, out of which 2 diploid varieties carried genome A, 9 diploidic types had genomes AB, two varieties had genomes AG and four varieties were hexaploid ones with genomes ABD, were analysed from the point of view of their amino acid compositions. The amino acid contents of Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Tyr, Phe, His, Lys, Arg, Pro (a total of 17) were determined in the varieties listed above.It has been found that the amino acid contents of the grains genotype AA Triticum boeticum and T. monococcum exceeded the amino acid content of T. aestivum in respect of all the amino acids analysed in this experiment, with Glu being the only exception. In comparison with the aestivum wheat, essential amino acid contents showed a similarly favourable picture in the diploidic varieties mentioned. As regards type AB tetraploid varieties excesses of 13–16%, in comparison to the aestivum wheat, were found in essential amino acid contents. The amounts of non-essential amino acids in all the winter wheat varieties showed decreases irrespective of the ploid level.What concerns the total amino acid content, all the winter wheat varieties with the exception of T. monococcum (A), T. dicoccoides (AB) and T. dicoccum (AB) contained less amino acid than the aestivum wheat. All the monocarbonic acid and aromatic as well as heterocyclic amino acid contents of the wildly growing Triticum boeticum (A) and the grown Triticum monococcum (A) (with polaric, apolaric R groups, diamino radicles) exceeded the same contents of T. aestivum . The value of the monoamino-dicarbonic acid, however, was lower in our experiment.

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Representative straw samples from various cereals were analysed to determine their chemical composition and calorific value. It was found that the chemical composition data given in previous feeding tables can be applied to characterise modern varieties, as only the crude fat contents of oats and winter wheat were significantly higher than the available reference data, while the ash contents were lower. The calorific value of cereal straw was equal to or in some cases greater than that of energy grass, so cereal straw could be competitive with energy grass, due to its large cultivation area and the properties and value of its by-products.

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Investigations on the baking quality of winter wheat, which is the most important bread cereal in Hungary, have been in the focus of attention for a long time. it is useful to study the theoretical and practical aspects of European quality testing systems, because different European methods are generally mutually accepted in the EU. Many recognised testing methods have been developed in Hungary over the last hundred years. In the present experiments studies were made on the effect of the year, variety and mineral fertilization and their interactions on alveographic parameters. in the years examined, the main factor which determined the alveographic values was found to be the variety. fertilization had a significant effect on the examined parameters, but in most cases no regular trends were observed. The year only modified wheat quality in interactions.

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Changes in the chemical contents of the kernels of maize hybrids were analysed in three consecutive years (one dry, one arid and one wet) in samples originating from irrigation and fertilisation experiments. The results indicated that while irrigation and wet years had a protein-decreasing effect, the water supply did not influence the starch and oil contents. Under the influence of fertilization, the calcium and zinc contents of maize kernels decreased to varying degrees depending on the hybrid, while the sulphur contents changed parallel to the protein contents. Based on these data and on the use of more modern measuring equipment, tables giving recommendations for chemical contents should be revised.

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The rheological properties of seven winter wheat cultivars from two harvest years were studied. Rheological testing included two empirical rheological methods, alveograph and extensograph. Principal component analysis on the studied rheological parameters showed that the alveograph and extensograph parameters are influenced by entirely different factors. The first component was responsible solely for the extensograph parameters, primarily for the resistance properties of dough samples. The second component affected the extensograph extensibility (E) and alveograph tenacity (P) parameters as well, in spite of the fact that these parameters refer to different properties of dough. The third component explained only alveograph parameters, such as P, L and G values. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that the extensograph area parameter primarily depends on the maximum resistance to extension of dough (r=0.91). The extensibility and resistance at a constant extension of 5 cm properties did not show such strong relationship with the area parameter (r=0.56 and 0.65, respectively). The relationship between the extensograph maximum resistance and extensibility parameters was positive (r=0.20), while the correlation coefficient between alveograph P and L value was negative (r=0.34).

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In this study we examined the proline content of 143 honey samples with different flower origin. Some of the samples originated from commercial trade, the others came directly from beekeepers. We measured the proline content of beekeepers’ honeys and the received results were compared to the results of commercial honeys. The effects of added sugar products and heating on the quality parameters were also studied.

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The role of special corns in human diets is increasing as a result of their favourable nutritional values. Little is known about mineral contents of different red and blue corns, although they may help to inhibit deficiency diseases mainly in the developing countries. During this study, mineral contents (15 elements) of 3 red and 9 blue corn varieties were examined with ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Highest contents of macroelements were as follows: P (3859.5±562.1 mg kg −1 ), K (4325.0±469.5 mg kg −1 ) and Mg (1450.0±104.6 mg kg −1 ) in the variety Black Mexican, S (1555.0±128.6 mg kg −1 ) in Santo Domingo Blue. In case of microelements, iron, zinc and selenium were highlighted. Except one genotype, iron contents were above 30 mg kg −1 . Blaumais, Hopi Turquoise and Hopi Blue contained more than 40 mg kg −1 (41.0–46.3), which were above values published in the literature (10.0 mg kg −1 in average). For zinc, we measured 15.2–31.5 mg kg −1 . Selenium contents (0.1–0.2 mg kg −1 ) were also higher than in the literature (0.08 mg kg −1 ). Plant selection could utilize variability of special element contents in enhancing these phenomena.

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Low velocity surface layers can significantly increase ground accelerations during earthquakes. When saturated sandy sediments are present, because of pore pressure increase, decrease of soil strength or even liquefaction can occur. Some volume change follows the dissipation of excess pore pressure after the earthquake resulting surface settlements. To determine the liquefaction probability and post-liquefaction settlement is very important for critical facilities e.g. for the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Pore pressure increase and so the liquefaction and surface settlements depend on the characteristics of seismic loading and soil parameters. To quantify the extent of these phenomena is rather difficult. Uncertainties arise both from the probabilistic nature of the earthquake loading and from the simplifications of soil models as well. In the paper, the most important semi-empirical and dynamical effective stress methods for liquefaction and post-liquefaction settlement assessment are summarized. Most significant contributors to the uncertainties are highlighted, and particular examples through the investigation of Paks NPP site are given. Finally, a probabilistic procedure is proposed where the uncertainties will be taken into account by applying a logic tree methodology. At the same time, the uncertainties are reduced by the use of site-specific UHRS and stress reduction factors.

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