Authors:H. Quan, Z. Ge, Z. Li, C. Yin, K. Zhong, Z. Hao, H. Li and F. Ji
The desorption behaviour (desorption temperature and extent of desorption) of HF,HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl) and HFC-134a (CF3CH2F) on γ-AlF3 or catalyst supported on γ-AlF3 was studied using an adsorption apparatus and TG, DTA and DSC methods. On the basis of the results a reaction mechanism was
proposed for the preparation of HFC-134a. The γ-AlF3 employed for preparing the catalyst was expected to be stable below 550C based on the crystalline phase transition temperature
Authors:Z.L. Li, H.Y. Li, G. Chen, X.J. Liu, C.L. Kou, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, M. Hao, D.C. Liu and L.Q. Zhang
Seven Glu-A1m allelic variants of the Glu-A1mx genes in Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum, designated as 1Ax2.1a, 1Ax2.1b, 1Ax2.1c, 1Ax2.1d, 1Ax2.1e, 1Ax2.1f, and 1Ax2.1g were characterized. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in E. coli, and except for the 1Ax2.1a with the presence of internal stop codons at position of 313 aa, all correspond to the subunit in seeds. However, all the active six genes had a same DNA size although their encoding subunits showed different molecular weight. Our study indicated that amino acid residue substitutions rather than previously frequently reported insertions/deletions played an important role on the subunit evolution of these Glu-A1mx alleles. Since variation in the Glu-A1x locus in common wheat is rare, these novel genes at the Glu-A1mx can be used as candidate genes for further wheat quality improvement.
Authors:G. Chen, M.H. Zhang, X.J. Liu, J.Y. Fu, H.Y. Li, M. Hao, S.Z. Ning, Z.W. Yuan, Z.H. Yan, B.H. Wu, D.C. Liu and L.Q. Zhang
Premature termination codons (PTCs) are an important reason for the silence of highmolecular- weight glutenin subunits in Triticum species. Although the Glu-A1y gene is generally silent in common wheat, we here isolated an expressed Glu-A1y gene containing a PTC, named 1Ay8.3, from Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (AmAm, 2n = 2x = 14). Despite the presence of a PTC (TAG) at base pair positions 1879–1881 in the C-terminal coding region, this did not obviously affect 1Ay8.3 expression in seeds. This was demonstrated by the fact that when the PTC TAG of 1Ay8.3 was mutated to the CAG codon, the mutant in Escherichia coli bacterial cells expressed the same subunit as in the seeds. However, in E. coli, 1Ay8.3 containing the PTC expressed a truncated protein with faster electrophoretic mobility than that in seeds, suggesting that PTC translation termination suppression probably occurs in vivo (seeds) but not in vitro (E. coli). This may represent one of only a few reports on the PTC termination suppression phenomenon in genes.
Authors:Y.P. Jing, D.T. Liu, X.R. Yu, F. Xiong, D.L. Li, Y.K. Zheng, Y.F. Hao, Y.J. Gu and Z. Wang
The objective of the present study was to understand the developmental regularity of wheat endosperm cells at different Days After Pollination (DAP) using microscopic and histochemical methods. Resin semi-thin sections of the endosperm and the enzymatically dissociated Starchy Endosperm Cells (SECs) were observed under a light microscope. The results showed that: (1) SECs were irregular-shaped and had two types of starch granules: large oval-shaped A-type starch granules and small spherical B-type starch granules. (2) The growth shape of SECs was referred to as S-curve and the fastest cell growth period was at 16–24 DAP. (3) The largest increase and growth of A-type starch granules were mainly at 4–16 DAP. B-type starch granules increased rapidly after 16 DAP and made up over 90% of the total starch granules in SEC during the late stage of endosperm development. (4) The nuclei of SEC deformed and degenerated during the middle and late stages of endosperm development and eventually disappeared. However, starch granules still increased and grew after the cell nuclei had degenerated. The investigations showed the development regularity of starch endosperm cells and starch granules, thereby improving the understanding of wheat endosperm development.