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Sustainable nutrition (SN) considers the environmental impact of food production. This study aims to analyse the relationship between nutrient density and water footprint (WF) of the most consumed food items in Hungary and to create a classification of nutrients. Based on a comprehensive analysis of literature and different data sources, the authors analysed the stochastic relationship between WF and nutrient density of different food items by Spearman's rank correlation. The analysis proved significant (P<0.05) relationship between nutrient density and WF of the most relevant food items in Hungary. Based on the classification, there are nutrients that are overconsumed among the Hungarian population and positively correlate with WF (e.g., cholesterol) and there are nutrients that are under-consumed among the Hungarian population and negatively correlate with WF (e.g., dietary fibres). In general, it can be concluded that the re-structuration of food consumption patterns in Hungary is an important and urgent task, which serves both the public health and ecologic goals. These efforts should be based on a complex evaluation of the problem. This study was one initial step to analyse SN focused on Hungary and further studies are definitely needed.

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Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) biomass, which is of a good quality in the middle of summer, when cool-season grasses are unproductive, is a very important source of forage. This study measured the influence of the date of first harvest and cutting height on the first and regrowth yields of switchgrass cultivars Blackwell and Cave in Rock. The experiment was conducted in Blacksburg, VA, USA on a Groseclose-Poplimento soil to determine the influence of four dates of harvest and two cutting heights on the yield of switchgrass in 1990, and the influence of the treatments in previous years on the yields in 1991 and 1992. The first yield of both cultivars increased as the date of first harvest was delayed and the cutting height reduced. The regrowth yield of both cultivars declined as the date of first harvest was delayed. A shorter cutting height caused reductions in vigour and yield potential in the second year, whilst in the third year the harvested yield was only 40–50% of that obtained from previously unharvested stands.

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The purpose of the experiment was to observe the influence of previous, repeated water stress cycles on the response of Triticum monococcum L. and Triticum spelta L. to a subsequent, challenge water stress. The plants were grown in pots, in a growth chamber. Treated plants underwent two water stress cycles, while control plants were kept well watered. In the subsequent challenge water stress cycle both control and treated plants experienced water deficiency. The growth of treated Triticum monococcum plants was 32.9% higher than the growth of control plants in the challenge water stress cycle. There was no difference between the growth of treated and control Triticum spelta plants in the challenge water stress cycle.  The leaf-blade/leaf-sheath ratio decreased in the case of both Triticum species as the number of water stress cycles increased. In the case of Triticum monococcum, the number of stomata in the middle part of the leaf-blade was significantly higher (18.7%) in treated plants than in control plants. In the case of Triticum spelta, the number of stomata in the middle part of the leaf-blade was also higher (5.2%) in treated plants than in control plants.

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The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of water stress conditioning on the photosynthesis response of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to moisture deficiency. Tillers of the two species were grown in the same, controlled, environment and were subjected to three conditioning water stress cycles, or were kept well watered. After drought conditioning all plants were subjected to moisture deficiency while photosynthesis and leaf water potential were monitored. Measurements were taken between –0.8 and –4.0 MPa and the rate of water stress was 0.49 MPa/day. The conditioning of switchgrass produced a 26% reduction in the photosynthesis rate during drought, while that of tall fescue produced a 57% reduction in photosynthesis. Both species maintained elongation and photosynthesis down to lower leaf water potentials after drought conditioning than before conditioning. The conditioning water stress cycles decreased the leaf conductance, mesophyll resistance and transpiration of tall fescue plants after rewatering. The leaf water potential of conditioned switchgrass plants was lower upon rewatering after three conditioning water stress cycles than the leaf water potential of non-conditioned plants, while the leaf conductance, mesophyll resistance and transpiration of conditioned and non-conditioned tillers were equal. These data indicate an improvement in the drought tolerance of tall fescue and switchgrass plants, emphasize the importance of knowing the previous water stress history of the plants in moisture deficiency experiments, and help to choose proper irrigation management for switchgrass and tall fescue.

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Consumption of dietary supplements (DS) has been showing a persistent, rapidly growing tendency all over the world. A new branch has been created on the borderline of food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a general tendency that the policy and regulation towards the products of this branch are lagging far behind the practice. This is an especially important problem with adolescents. To work out an efficient regulatory framework, we have to have an adequate picture on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards these products. Based on literature analysis of two focus group interviews, we have developed a motivational model on usage of DS, which has been tasted during a direct-question survey involving more than 500 respondents. Our results have proven that the consumption of DS is proliferated among young recreational athletes. One quarter of them consumes proteins, one tenth L-carnitine at least 2–3 times a week. The most important motivational factor is the improvement of sport performance. The level of confidence in these products is considerably influenced by peers and trainers. The propensity to underestimate the potentially adverse consequences of these products is high.

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Enniatins (ENs), produced by Fusarium species are a group of mycotoxins with antimicrobial, insecticidal (GROVE & POPLE, 1980) and phytotoxic activities. PCR based assays were applied for detecting enniatin-producing strains of Fusarium avenaceum, F. poae and F. sporotrichioides isolated from wheat seeds originated of 30 geographic localities of Hungary. All F. sporotrichoides strains and except two of all F. poae strains gave positive signal to esysp1 and esysp2 primers as well as all F. avenaceum isolates were positive to esya1 and esya2 primers indicating the ability to produce ENs. This is a first report of the enniatin producing ability of Fusarium species associated to wheat in Hungary.

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Summary  

Thirty-seven episodes of dust intrusion were observed between February 12, 1991 and August 31, 2000 in the Hungarian atmosphere and found to be of Saharan origin. They have been assigned to typical source areas in Northern Africa selected by systematic investigations related to the Mediterranean Basin. Elemental concentrations and regional signatures deduced from PIXE analysis, total suspended particle mass, and black carbon mass have been measured on dust samples collected in Debrecen, Hungary. These data combined with Aerosol Index data, and dust plume axes obtained from TOMS data from NASA satellites were used for assigning the most probable source areas of the dust transported to the sampling site. Our data and conclusions are in accordance with other published investigations on the predominant role of Saharan dust emission in building up the aerosol load of the global atmosphere.

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Abstract  

The γ-ray spectrum analysis code HYPERMET-PC has been significantly upgraded since its introduction in the firstk 0-Users Workshop (1992). Some aspects of the implemented procedures in the new version 5.0, such as the novel approach to handle tandem LFC spectra and the benefit of using ortho-normal polynomials for fitting efficiency curves will be outlined. Having realized the importance of quality assurance in applied γ-ray spectrometry, additional utilities have been incorporated for checking system parameters: nonlinearity, energy resolution, etc. The new Nuclide Identification routine makes the program suitable for qualitative analysis both of NAA and PGAA type.

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Species-specific PCR assay was used for the identification of Hungarian Fusarium graminearum isolates in pure mycelial culture. The Fg16F/Fg16R primer pair of the three known species-specific primers appeared to be the most appropriate one to identify F. graminearum .Two methods were used for comparative determination of the amplicon size of F. graminearum strains: traditional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chip electrophoresis. Our results have shown that the chip electrophoresis is an easy-to-use, time-efficient substitute for conventional agarose gel electrophoresis; moreover it provides a more precise size determination of amplicons. Amplicon size ranging from 415 bp to 421 bp in tested isolates may be associated with genetic diversity in the Hungarian population of F. graminearum .The PCR assay described in this study can be used for the routine detection and identification of F. graminearum without isolation and morphological investigation of this fungus.

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