Authors:L. Palcsu, M. Molnár, Z. Major, E. Svingor, M. Veres, I. Barnabás and S. Kapitány
As decay products, helium isotopes can clearly indicate the presence of tritium and alpha decaying isotopes in a closed system.
This study presents the helium and neon measurements and their interpretation of long-term headspace gas investigations in
L/ILW waste drums from Paks Nuclear Power Plant and closed vaults of the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility,
Püspökszilágy, Hungary. Development of special sampling methods and preparation lines as well as isotope-analytical measurements
of the headspace gas samples were done in the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies in the ATOMKI. In the gas samples
helium isotopes as well as neon isotopes have been determined mass spectrometrically. While neon content can be of atmospheric
origin only, helium can be produced either by alpha decay (4He) or decay of tritium (3He). 3H/4He and He/Ne ratios have been used to determine the different origin of the helium isotopes. Helium isotope ratios always
represented 3He enrichment in the headspace gases produced by the decay of the tritium in the waste. Using the recent 3He concentration in headspace gas the total amount of 3H restored in L/ILW vaults was estimated. The investigated seven different vaults were closed between 1979 and 1995 when they
had been full with L/ILW. The calculated tritium activities based on the He measurements showed good agreement with the documented
isotope inventory of the vaults. Typical tritium activity concentrations were between 0.1 and 10 Bq/L gas in the drums and
between 10 and 1000 Bq/L gas in the vaults. Additionally, one drum showed a higher He/Ne ratio compared to air, which clearly
indicates 4He excess, thus the presence an alpha source in the waste.
Authors:G. Molnár, T. Belgya, L. Dabolczi, B. Fazekas, Zs. Révay, Á. Veres, I. Bikit, Z. Kiss and J. Östör
Prompt gamma-activation analysis (PGAA) is an important complementary technique to conventional instrumental activation analysis that can be successfully used in a number of cases when INAA is not applicable. Therefore, a PGAA facility has been constructed at the recently refurbished and upgraded Budapest Research Reactor. It occupies the end position of a new curved themal guide of 30 m length and 2.5×10 cm2 cross section which provides a clean beam of low energy neutrons. The sophisticated HPGe-BGO -ray spectrometer system can be operated in Compton-suppression and pair-spectrometer modes simultaneously. The octal splitting of the main BGO improves efficient pair mode operation when coincidences between pairs of opposite segments and the HPGe detector are required separately. Gamma-gamma coincidence measurements will also be possible when the new multiparameter data acquisition system is completed. One of the main tasks at the new facility will be the accumulation of new spectroscopic data for detector calibration and standardisation, as well as for the construction of a more accurate prompt -ray library for the chemical elements. Various applications are planned, such as the determination of hydrogen in fullerenes and of toxic trace elements in environmental samples.
Authors:K. Szakszon, Z. L. Veres, M. Boros, S. Sz. Kiss, B. Nagy, E. Bálega, á. Papp, E. Németh, I. Pataki and T. Szabó
We report a case of an infant with spontaneous chylothorax due to the congenital malformation of a small lymph vessel of the chest wall. Conservative therapy with omitting long-chain fatty acids from the diet, fat-free nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and intravenous somatostatin did not result in the decrease of pleural effusion. Thoracic surgical intervention performing thoracic duct ligation and using fibrin sealants was applied after 10 days of unsuccessful conservative therapy, and resulted in the complete recovery of the patient. Our experience support the already existing observations, that in cases where the daily loss of chyle exceeds 100 ml per age years and/or lasts longer than 2 weeks, early surgical intervention is recommended.