The eriophyid mite Calepitrimerus vitis is a common pest in many vineyards in Hungary. Deutogynes (winter-form) of Calepitrimerus vitis in the vineyards of Szekszárd emerge from their overwintering sites in spring. Protogynes (summer-form) start to appear at the beginning of May, replacing deutogynes gradually. The process lasts until the end of May when the deutogynes disappear. The mite population increases slightly during the summer months. In August a rapid increase occurs. The maximum density of mites is reached at the middle of August or at the beginning of September, when the first deutogynes appear. The mite density declines in September rapidly and it is very low in October. The hibernation shelters are in the buds and at the cane base with the 2 year old wood. The most females are found at the cane base and in buds 1–4. In upper buds mite density gradually declines. A washing technique is described to estimate the population of Calepitrimerus vitis and useful for sampling of eriophyid mites either in summer or winter.
E. Vives: Coleoptera-Cerambycidae, Fauna Ibérica, Vol. 12., Museo National de Ciencias Naturales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones, Madrid 2000, p. 715 L. Bos: Plant Viruses, Unique and Intriguing Pathogens- A Textbook of Plant Virolgy, Bachuys Publishers, Leiden 1999, p. 358
In this study the Ptyngidricerus Van der Weele, 1908 genus has been revised and in the course of this 2 new genera and 4 new species are described. The description of the new genus was made possible apart from the male samples, the females (P. albardanus) which were recorded and supplement of the description based on damaged specimens (P. iranensis) earlier enabling the evaluation of their taxonomic status. The following species belonging to Ptyngidricerus genus: Ptyngidricerus albardanus albardanus (McLachlan, 1891), Ptyngidricerus albardanus pterostigmatus Alexandrov Martynov, 1926, Ptyngidricerus pseudoalbardanus sp. n. Ptyngidricerus persepolisensis sp. n. and Ptyngidricerus sendanensis sp. n. from Iran and Ptyngidricerus pakistanensis sp. n. from Pakistan. Apart from describing the new species the authors present a description of the female Ptyngidricerus albardanus albardanus (McLachlan, 1891) which has so far not been known according to the literature on this species. The earlier described species were combinated on the basis of their genitalia and external morphological characteristics in new genus: Iranoidricerus iranensis (Kimmins, 1938) and Omanoidricerus venustus (Tjeder and Waterston, 1977). The illustration of the female and male genitalia of Iranoidricerus iranensis Kimmins, 1938 is also presented. On account of sexual dimorphism a key is given for identification of the female and male specimens with 25 figures.
The present study gives a description of two new genus belonging to Ascalaphini tribus according to the classification of Ascalaphinae Lefébvre, 1842 [=Schizophthalminae Weele (1908)]: the Horischema gen. n. and Perissoschema gen. n. It also describes some of their species, Horischema ronkayorum sp. n. and Perissoschema evae sp. n. from the area of the Himalayas, Pakistan, and Nepal. Key for all genera of the tribus is given. With 8 photos.
The first winter-forms (deutogyne) of the eriophyid mite Calepitrimerus vitis appear in the vineyards of Szekszárd at the beginning of August and then the mites continuously take refuge in their hibernation shelters until end of October. Most winter-forms move to the buds during September. There is no connection between the moving period length and the yearly infection. In spite of the low mite population in the years with weak infestation (1999, 2001) the movement lasts the same late, until end of October. Ratio of the mites taking refuge in hibernation shelters is the best at the beginning of the moving period in August and it is decreasing continuously until October. Considering the directions of movement to the hibernation shelters, 74.7% of the mites seek for the hibernation shelters moved down and 25.3% of the mites moved up. A new method is described, useful for practical purposes in an effort to evaluate the number of mites moving towards their hibernation shelters.
Using laboratory experiments, the
daily activity patterns of 16 Neuroptera species (6 Chrysopidae, 2
Coniopterygidae, 3 Hemerobiidae, 3 Myrmeleontidae, 1 Mantispidae, 1
Ascalaphidae) were studied by the authors. The results of the experiments were
described by activity diagrams and were categorized into Duelli-type flight
activity pattern. During the study, 14 species showed carnea type of nocturnal
activity. Mantispa styriaca proved to belong to hypochrysodes type which is
active at daytime. The daily activity pattern of Libelloides macaronius differs
from the hypochrysodes type due to its strong preference of UV radiation;
therefore it is described as a separate libelloides type.
Studying ascalaphid materials from
Thailand, Laos and Pakistan the authors determined specimens which belonged to
the genus of Nousera. In this paper the
redescription of the genus of Nousera and its type species, Nousera gibba Navás, 1923 can be found. Besides Nousera herczigi, a new
species from Pakistan is also described. With altogether 23 figures. In the end
the species of Nousera were revised and found that Nousera furcifer (Van der
Weele, 1909) does not belong to the genus of Nousera. As its original generic
name of Pseudoptynx Van der Weele, 1909 is a homonym, a new name (nomen novum)
has to be given replaced such as Ascapseudoptynx furcifer (Van der Weele,
The self-hardening activity of fly ashes was investigated looking for the possibility of their chemical reactions with water without additives. A method had to be developed for separation of the structural water from the adsorbed or free one. The decomposition of the chemically bound water was measured by thermogravimetry. The‘I’ dimensionless number proved to be applicable for the quantitative characterisation of the measured data with more DTG peaks. The examined reaction depends on the chemical composition and the physical structure of the fly ashes and the time of interaction with water. The SO3 content seems important, but the characteristics of the formed compounds differ deeply from the CaSO4·2H2O. The observed and examined reaction is an important factor of the self-hardening process of fly ash deposits.