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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
H. Azizi
,
M. Sheidai
,
V. Mozaffarian
, and
Z. Noormohammadi

Tragopogon L. (Cichorioideae, Lactuceae, Scorzonerinae) is an Old World genus with 150 species. Pollen morphology has proved useful in the systematics of some genera and species of Asteraceae as well as in that of some of its genera and species. The pollen morphology of 24 taxa of the genus Tragopogon was investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pollen grain type ranged from suboblate, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal in equatorial view and hexagonal, obtuse-hexagonal to hexagonal-angular in polar view. In this study separation of the species of the sections Majores, Profundisulcati, Sosnovsky, Chromopappus, Rubriflori according to Flora Iranica is presented from the other species of Tragopogon. T. jezdianus, T. porphyrocephalus, T. rezaiyensis are suggested to belong to Rubriflori section. The results indicate that the palynological characters of the genus Tragopogon are valuable for taxonomic applications and are useful for classification.

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Persicaria with 70–100 species in the world is distributed in temperate regions of both hemispheres. It has 11 species in Iran growing in moist areas and margins of rivers. Through hybridisation, plasticity and existence of overlapping habitats, species identification shows difficulty. In this study, we aimed to investigate karyotype characters and morphological features, evaluate genetic variability within and among species studied and examine species relationship using ISSR data. Nine annual taxa of Persicaria were gathered from different localities in Iran and used for studies. Our studies showed that combination of karyological, morphological and molecular data can delimit species studied. Based on karyological results, three chromosome counts (P. hydropiper (2n = 2x = 20), P. maculosa (2n = 2x = 22), P. orientalis (2n = 2x = 22)) were the first reports for the Flora of Iran. Analyses of morphological characters showed diagnostic features among taxa. STRUCTURE and AMOVA analyses showed high intraspecific genetic diversity. Our results suggested that phenotypic plasticity and hybridisation may cause genetic diversity within Persicaria species.

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A cogent medicinal and aromatic plant, Ziziphora clinopodioides (Lamiaceae) is a perennial herb, its aerial parts is used as a wild vegetable or additive in foods to proffer pleasant aroma and flavour. There are many discussions about the intraspecific classification of this species and several subspecies have been introduced for it in different flora. These subspecies are morphologically very similar and identification of them is very difficult and in some cases, impossible. Therefore, in the present study, the pollen grains morphology of nine subspecies (32 specimens) of Z. clinopodioides were probed and documented in details utilising the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In total, eleven pollen morphological characteristics were investigated and analysed by PAST software. The obtained results showed that pollen grains were hexacolpate and their equatorial views were sub-oblate to prolate. The exine ornamentation types of the pollen grains are bireticulate, microreticulate, reticulate and bireticulate-reticulate. The ANOVA test did not show significant difference for the studied quantitative traits. Although, the results of the multivariate analysis revealed a high diversity amongst the specimens even in the specimens of a single subspecies; it did not confirm the separation of subspecies in Z. clinopodioides.

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Geranium subg. Robertium (Geraniaceae) comprises eight sections, of which sect. Batrachioidea contains four species centred in Eurasia, Mediterranean region and the Himalaya Mountains. Three species of Geranium pusillum, G. molle and G. pyrenaicum occur in Iran show some degree of morphological overlaps that make the species delimitation difficult. Moreover, hybrids are known to be formed between these species elsewhere. Till present time, there has been no detailed information available on molecular phylogeny and genetic structure of these species in the country. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim to investigate species delimitation by both morphological and molecular data and to reveal genetic diversity and population structure in these three Geranium species. For this study, 216 randomly collected plants from 30 geographical populations in three Geranium species were used. We encountered extensive within species genetic and morphological diversity. ISSR molecular markers could not delimit the studied species. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the occurrence gene flow between these species. The Mantel test showed no correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance of the populations studied. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between ITS and rbcL sequences and phylogenetic tree was constructed based on combined data set which separated outgroups from the studied species. Genetic affinity of the studied species has been discussed.

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Species delimitation is essential since species is regarded as the basic unit of analysis in nearly all biological disciplines, such as ecology, biogeography, conservation biology, and macroevolution. The genus Geranium (Geraniaceae) comprises about 350 species distributed throughout most parts of the world. The subg. Robertium comprises 30 species which are arranged in 8 sections. This subgenus is represented in Iran by 10 species. These species are grouped into 5 sections. In spite vast distribution of many Geranium species that grow in Iran, there are not any available report on their genetic diversity, mode of divergence and patterns of dispersal. Therefore molecular (ISSR markers) and morphological studies of 147 accessions from 10 species of Geranium (subg. Robertium), that were collected from different habitats in Iran were performed. The aims of the present study are: 1) to find the diagnostic value of ISSR markers in delimitation of Geranium species, 2) to find the genetic structure of these taxa in Iran, and 3) to investigate the species inter-relationship. The present study revealed that combination of morphological and ISSR data can delimit the species. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the species of subg. Robertium are genetically differentiated but have some degree of shared common alleles.

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Both the primary and secondary metabolisms of higher plants are influenced by environmental conditions. Peganum harmala L. synthesise amazing diversity of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, volatile oils, triterpenes or sterols. We have no detailed information on genetic chemical contents and particularly the fatty acid contents of this plant species in Iran. Therefore, population-based fatty acid and alkaloid analyses were conducted in four geographical populations. Seeds fatty acid analysis revealed linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid were the main components in seeds oil. The highest fatty acid component was the linoleic acid in both mature and premature seeds of four studied populations. Low levels of 18:3/18:2 ratio in mature seeds (>0.01) in comparison to premature seeds (> 0.04) were found. Grouping of the populations by WARD clustering, separated mature seeds from premature seeds. CCA plot of P. harmala populations based on fatty acid contents, revealing the influence of geographical features on population differentiation. The main alkaloid contents in premature and mature seeds were harmine and harmaline. PCoA plots of the studied populations based on alkaloid contents for both premature and mature seeds separated the populations from each other.

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