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The cochlear nucleus is the site in the auditory pathway where the primary sensory information carried by the fibres of the acoustic nerve is transmitted to the second-order neurones. According to the generally accepted view this transmission is not a simple relay process but is considered as the first stage where the decoding of the auditory information begins. This notion is based on the diverse neurone composition and highly ordered structure of the nucleus, on the complex electrophysiological properties and activity patterns of the neurones, on the activity of local and descending modulatory mechanisms and on the presence of a highly sophisticated intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. This review puts emphasis on introducing the experimental findings supporting the above statements and on the questions which should be answered in order to gain a better understanding of the function of the cochlear nucleus.

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Dietary fibres (DFs) are essential components of the balanced diet. Even though the adequate level of their consumption can be ensured from several natural (e.g. fruit, vegetables, legumes) and ‘artificial’ sources (e.g. functional foods), the consumed levels are below the recommendations. To analyse the Hungarian and Romanian consumers’ knowledge level, their perceptions of the health benefits associated with fibre, as well as the recognition of the potential information sources, a survey questionnaire was conducted with the total of 713 consumers. Results showed that the level of knowledge about DFs was not adequate. Internet was found to be widely used and identified as one of the most appropriate information sources to encourage the consumption of DF. It was a favourable result that three-quarter of the respondents was interested in the topic of healthy food consumption; however, just less than half of them took into consideration the label information during their shopping decisions. To increase the consumption of DF and to support the responsibility and conscious consumer decisions steps must to be done (e.g. education of children, pointing out of the sources). For this purpose, modern information technology and communication channels fitting to the consumers’ cultural and personal particularities can be utilized.

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Abstract  

The complex formation of astatine/I/ cation with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid /DTPA/ and characterization of the complexes were investigated by electromigration in free electrolytes and by gel-chromatography on Sephadex G 25. We describe the conjugation procedure for the production of At-DTPA conjugated polyclonal antibodies.

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One basic precondition for the reliable cultivation of winter durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) in Hungary is for the varieties to have good winter hardiness and frost resistance. Field overwintering experiments carried out in Martonvásár between 1995 and 2003 demonstrated that there was a significant difference every year between the overwintering of varieties with poor and good frost resistance, though only in two years was there a significant difference between that of varieties with medium and better frost resistance. Only a medium correlation was observed between the mean annual values of the air temperature in the winter months and the winter hardiness of the varieties, confirming that winter hardiness is influenced jointly by a number of environmental factors (e.g. cold, snow cover). In the experiments carried out on the winter hardiness dynamics of durum wheat, it was found that in milder winters even T. durum varieties which are sensitive to frost overwintered with little damage, while in the two coldest winters during the experimental period the hardiness of these varieties did not provide sufficient protection even in December, and all the plants were destroyed by January. The early spring frosts experienced in 1996 proved in these experiments that spring frosts may cause considerable damage even to durum wheat varieties with relatively good winter hardiness. Averaged over eight years, the results prove that T. durum genotypes are now available whose average state of hardening and winter hardiness are equal or better than those of winter T. aestivum varieties with moderate frost resistance.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
B. Pál
,
Z. Rusznák
,
Cs. Harasztosi
, and
G. Szűcs

Depolarization-activated outward currents of bushy neurones of 6-14-day-old Wistar rats have been investigated in a brain slice preparation. Under current-clamp, the cells produced a single action potential at the beginning of suprathreshold depolarizing current steps. On voltage-clamp depolarizations, the cells produced a mixed outward K+ current that included a component with rapid activation and rapid inactivation, little TEA+ sensitivity, a half-inactivation voltage of -77 ± 2 mV (T = 25 °C; n = 7; Mean ± S.E.M.) and single-exponential recovery from inactivation (trecovery

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Abstract  

The use of the 99Mo 99mTc generator in nuclear medicine is well established world wide. The production of the 99Mo (T1/2 = 66 h) parent as a fission product of 235U is largely based on the use of reactor technology. From the early 1990's accelerator based production methods to provide either direct produced 99mTc or the parent 99Mo, were studied and suggested as potential alternatives to the reactor based production of 99Mo. A possible pathway for the charged particle production of 99mTc and 99Mo is irradiation of molybdenum metal with protons via the reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo, respectively. The earlier published excitation functions show large differences in their maximum that result in large differences in the calculated yields. We therefore decided to study the excitation function for these proton-induced reactions. In this work the newly measured excitation functions as well as an evaluation of earlier measured data and a discussion of the observed disagreements are presented.

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Summary  

Vanadium-48 was produced with an activity of 222 MBq (6 mCi) by the natTi(d,xn)48V nuclear reactions in the U-120 cyclotron. The energy of the irradiating beam was 13 MeV, its intensity 5 μA, and the metallic Ti target dimension 11’11 mm2 (0.1 mm thickness). For target cooling, circulated water in target backside was used. After 3 cooling days, only 48V and some 46Sc (T 1/2 = 83.8 d), produced by the side nuclear reaction 48Ti(d,α)46Sc were found in the target. For production of the radiotracer of 48V and for the preparation of source for standardization of 48V by 4πβ-γ coincidence, the Ti target was dissolved either in HF or in H2SO4. For both dissolving methods an ion-exchange separation procedure was developed.

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Abstract  

Understanding the characteristics of diffusion is essential in the assessment of radionuclide release through the backfill of waste repository. The diffusion behavior of 3H, 99Tc, 125I, 36Cl and 85Sr in granite, concrete and bentonite was studied in a specially designed diffusion cell. Diffusion coefficients (D, D a) and time-lag (t a) were measured, break-trough curves were plotted and experimental data were interpreted to predict diffusion rates. The results showed that tritium, iodine and chlorine could be considered as non-sorbing tracers, while technetium was weakly and strontium was strongly sorbed (no break-through was observed during the period of the experiments).

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
J. Bányai
,
P. Szűcs
,
I. Karsai
,
K. Mészáros
,
Cs. Kuti
,
L. Láng
, and
Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Saju
,
Sz. Németh
,
Réka Szűcs
,
Rashmi Sukumaran
,
Z. Lim
,
L. Wong
,
L. Orbán
, and
M. Bercsényi

The identification of three scorpionfish species, the black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, 1758), the large-scaled scorpionfish (S. scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) and the small red scorpionfish (S. notata Rafinesque, 1810) is possible in adults by morphometry, but often problematic in juveniles due to their similar phenotypes. To develop a molecular species identification tool, first, we have analyzed the genetic similarity of the three species by a PCR-based ‘blind method’ that amplified bands from various locations of the genome. We found high levels of nucleotide similarity between S. porcus and S. scrofa, whereas S. notata showed a higher level of divergence from the other two species. Then, we have searched these patterns for differences between the genomes of Adriatic specimen of these three species and identified several species-specific products in two of them. For the third one a species-specific primer pair amplifying from the 16S ribosomal DNA was designed. One marker for each species was cloned, sequenced and converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers amplified by specific primer pairs. The SCAR markers amplified robust bands of limited variability from the target species, while no or only occasional weak products were obtained from the other two, proving that they can be used for molecular identification of these three species. These markers can help the conservation and future analysis of these three species as well as their possible selection programs for aquaculture purposes.

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