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Finslersche Projektivgeometrie. I

Eine Globale Begründung der Finslerschen Projektivzusammenhänge

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Author:
Z. I. Szabó
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Finslersche Projektivgeometrie. II

Über Finslersche Projektivbündel mit Weylscher Projektivkrümmung Null

Acta Mathematica Hungarica
Author:
Z. I. Szabó
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The national soil-mapping project initiated and led by Kreybig was unique being a national, large-scale survey based on field and laboratory soil analysis and in the meantime serving practical purposes. By its completion, in the early 1950s, Hungary was the first country in the world having such detailed soil information for the whole country. The Kreybig maps are still timely, because the temporal changes in the mapped soil characteristics are not significant. The GIS adaptation of information originating from this survey is under construction, but there is more utilizable information originating from this survey, than it was published in the map series and in reports, and what is provided by simply archiving them digitally. Compilation of the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System as a national spatial soil information system involves both its integration within appropriate spatial data infrastructure and updating with efficient field correlation, which make an inherent refinement and upgrading of the system possible. The field-based updating of DKSIS using field GIS technology by the implication of recent data collected at revisited sites makes the comparison of archived and newly surveyed soil state possible. This, in one hand, should be recorded in the database by updating it. On the other hand, trends can be identified in soil characteristics, thus processes can be realized and/or forecasted. Based on the upgraded database we produce soil maps (i) displaying recent state of soils (ii) with increased accuracy and (iii) according to the soil-mapping concept elaborated by Kreybig et al.

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Studies involving morphological description with both dominant (RAPD) and codominant (SSR, isoenzyme) molecular markers were made on 28 maize inbred lines of known genetic background with a final aim of prediction of heterosis. The genetic distance and degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses as the 28 lines formed only 16 gel electrophoretic groups, indicating that certain lines had identical isoenzyme patterns. On the basis of RAPD and gene-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers, however, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. When the lines were grouped according to genetic background it was found that although the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the data, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.

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The performance of the VITEK 2 System (bioMérieux) version 3.01 software was compared to that of the E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) for antibiotic susceptibility testing of 17 clinical isolates of vancomycin resistant enterococcus (VRE). Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (AST) by VITEK 2 produced 10 minor (59%) errors, resulting in false phenotypes. Reporting of vancomycin resistance in enterococcal strains has enormous therapeutic and epidemiological consequences. Therefore, at laboratories using automated systems (e.g. VITEK 2) for routine microbiological susceptibility testing data must be confirmed by independent validated methods, e.g. E-test, or microdilution.

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Within a survey made of Hungarian awareness of, attitudes towards, and preferences for food labels and pricing, this study focused on consumers’ reactions to quality and country of origin labels. Data were collected with a standard questionnaire, face-to-face interviews (1000 participants) in the respondents’ home. It became obvious that consumers were looking for information about quality (rating its importance at 4.04) on packages, but information about origin (3.94) and production (3.89) was also important to them. The capability of respondents to spontaneously recall country of origin and quality labels was very limited: 35.5% of all respondents could not name any such labels. The best known label was “Hungarian Product” (30.5%), which was recognized by up to 90% of the respondents after they were shown it. Many consumers were ready to pay premium for products bearing this label (31.7%). According to our results, information about quality is important to consumers, but they do not look for it deliberately, and only a few consumers ascribe a higher value to products with labels bearing this information. There is a pressing need to increase consumers’ confidence for trademarks through dissemination of reliable information.

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Polgár 1:Iron Age settlement (3 rd century BC) . The Celtic settlement at Polgár was an open rural settlement. This type is generally considered to have agricultural features, which, however, cannot be supported by finds. On the contrary, the clay tuyere found in feature no. 100 and the soot layer that covered the floor of building no. 318 attest to industrial activities. The composition of the find material shows an absolute dominance of pottery sherds. According to the analysis, pottery vessels that can be linked with the so-called Scythian autochthonous population of the Great Hungarian Plain can also be found beside La Tène ceramic types. Accordingly, the survival of the former population and its amalgamation with the immigrant Celts can be supposed. This find situation is basically identical to the archaeological picture of the settlement uncovered at Sajópetri. This is reinforced by the fact that both settlements were established in the LT B2 period and both were peacefully abandoned by the inhabitants in the LT C1 period.

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The first steps in studies on the female and male gametophytes of wheat involved the light microscope analysis of semi-thin sections of embryo sacs containing egg-cells developing in planta. The information thus obtained on the development of the egg-cell from its initial formation to maturity contributed to the successful isolation of egg-cells. The morphological and ultrastructural details of egg-cells isolated 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days after emasculation were examined to determine the function of the female gametophyte and its suitability for micromanipulation. A sufficient number of gametoplasts in the right stage of development are required for the successful microinjection and in vitro fusion of egg-cells and male gametes. No data are yet available on the fusiogenicity of wheat egg-cells in various stages of development. Various in vitro fertilisation and microinjection techniques could be of service in gamete fusion experiments aimed at the creation of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids which do not occur in nature due to sporophytic incompatibility. The results acquired in investigations on immature embryos can be used for the study of embryos developing from egg-cells fertilised in vitro.

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The aim of experiments was to characterize the neurons of the autonomic chain that innervates the nipple and the mammary gland of lactating rats using retrograde transynaptic virus labeling and neurotransmitter and neuropeptide immunohistochemistry. Two days after injection of green fluorescence protein labeled virus in two nipples and underlying mammary glands, labeling was observed in the ipsilateral paravertebral sympathetic trunk and the lateral horn. Three days after inoculation the labeling appeared in the brain stem and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Above the spinal cord the labeling was bilateral. A subpopulation of virus labeled cells in the paraventricular nuclei synthesized oxytocin. Labeled neurons in the lateral horn showed cholinergic immunoreactivity. These cholinergic neurons innervated the paravertebral ganglia where the virus labeled neurons were partially noradrenergic. The noradrenergic fibers in the mammary gland innervate the smooth muscle wall of vessels, but not the mammary gland in rats. The neurons in the lateral horn receive afferents from the brain stem, and paraventricular nucleus and these afferents are noradrenergic and oxytocinergic. New findings in our work: Some oxytocinergic fibers may descend to the neurons of the lateral horn which innervate noradrenergic neurons in the paravertebral sympathetic trunk, and in turn these noradrenergic neurons reach the vessels of the mammary gland.

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