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  • Author or Editor: Z. Szentpétery x
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The milling and baking quality of wheat is mainly determined by the genetic basis, but may also be influenced by management techniques. Series of winter wheat varieties were examined under identical agronomic conditions in the experimental years of 1996-2001. Weed control, the rate and application time of nitrogen top dressing, the use of insecticide and fungicide and the climate of the production year were evaluated as main factors. In the present study two major characteristics: the protein and gluten content of grain samples, were examined. The effect of nitrogen fertilization proved to have the strongest impact on both quality indexes. no significant quality differences were induced by the various means of weed control. Plant protection treatments had a rather diverse effect on the contents of the protein and gluten in certain years. The protein and gluten values were correlated in all the experimental treatments, but the level of the correlation showed considerable variation. The effect of crop year proved to be the strongest, followed by fertilization, from among the quality-determining factors. The protein versus gluten correlation was also found to be the closest in the case of nitrogen top dressing applications.

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Six wheat varieties representing different genotypes were tested under exposed and protected conditions in a three year herbicide provocation field trial at Nagygombos, Hungary. Three types of herbicide treatments (fluroxipir, bromoxynil and dicamba ai.) were applied in comparison with untreated and mechanical treated controls. Weed populations were sorted into two major groups according to the level of their occurrence. The result of experimental treatments were evaluated and  weed tolerance of varieties was determined. The magnitude of weed populations has shown significant differences. All weed control treatments, including chemical and mechanical applications, had an influence on weed development. Herbicide treatments had about fifty per cent, while mechanical applications had a nearly hundred per cent effect concerning weed reduction. The latter can be considered as a level of total weed extinction. High weed canopies were observed in the case of untreated controls only. Wheat cultivars have shown a variety specific yield response. The results obtained suggest varietal differences concerning weed tolerance. The extent of yield losses between wheat cultivars ranged from 4 to 18 per cent of grain yield. In the trial Martonvásári 19 and Martonvásári 21 wheat varieties were proven to have the best weed tolerance abilities. 

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
M. Jolánkai
Á. Tarnawa
H. F. Nyárai
Z. Szentpétery
, and
M. K. Kassai

Long-term trials are established in order to explore and observe plant and soil interrelationships in situ. Long-term trials can be described as live instruments providing ceteris paribus conditions in temporal sequences.

This review provides an introduction to major long-term trials in Hungary and in other parts of the world. It gives a brief summary of the origins of plant nutritional research, beginning with some data from Homer and the willow tree experiment of van Helmont, as well as the discovery of physiological processes by von Liebig, Lawes and Boussingault. The most profound long-term trials, like the Orto Botanico in Padova, the Linné Garden in Uppsala and the Broadbalk in Rothamsted are presented in the paper.

The agronomic, educational and scientific benefits of the major Hungarian long-term trials are also discussed, from Westsik (1929) to Martonvásár and the National Plant Nutrition Trials (OMTK) set up in 1963. There is a list of experimental sites giving information on the most important recent long-term trial locations and their activities.

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