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Polgár 1:Iron Age settlement (3 rd century BC) . The Celtic settlement at Polgár was an open rural settlement. This type is generally considered to have agricultural features, which, however, cannot be supported by finds. On the contrary, the clay tuyere found in feature no. 100 and the soot layer that covered the floor of building no. 318 attest to industrial activities. The composition of the find material shows an absolute dominance of pottery sherds. According to the analysis, pottery vessels that can be linked with the so-called Scythian autochthonous population of the Great Hungarian Plain can also be found beside La Tène ceramic types. Accordingly, the survival of the former population and its amalgamation with the immigrant Celts can be supposed. This find situation is basically identical to the archaeological picture of the settlement uncovered at Sajópetri. This is reinforced by the fact that both settlements were established in the LT B2 period and both were peacefully abandoned by the inhabitants in the LT C1 period.

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The first steps in studies on the female and male gametophytes of wheat involved the light microscope analysis of semi-thin sections of embryo sacs containing egg-cells developing in planta. The information thus obtained on the development of the egg-cell from its initial formation to maturity contributed to the successful isolation of egg-cells. The morphological and ultrastructural details of egg-cells isolated 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 days after emasculation were examined to determine the function of the female gametophyte and its suitability for micromanipulation. A sufficient number of gametoplasts in the right stage of development are required for the successful microinjection and in vitro fusion of egg-cells and male gametes. No data are yet available on the fusiogenicity of wheat egg-cells in various stages of development. Various in vitro fertilisation and microinjection techniques could be of service in gamete fusion experiments aimed at the creation of interspecific and intergeneric hybrids which do not occur in nature due to sporophytic incompatibility. The results acquired in investigations on immature embryos can be used for the study of embryos developing from egg-cells fertilised in vitro.

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The chemical composition of maize makes it suitable for a wide range of nonconventional uses, including utilisation as a new source of energy for the 21st century as a raw material for biofuel. The aim of the experiments was to amalgamate the application of genetic markers with conventional breeding methods to produce maize hybrids whose starch content and ecostability satisfied the demands of industrial use, while having yield potential and agronomic traits on a par with those of hybrids currently cultivated. The chemical quality of 220 lines was evaluated using the NIR spectrometric technique, and the five maize inbred lines with the lowest and highest starch contents were selected for genetic marker studies. The variety identification of the lines was carried out using the isoenzymes stipulated by UPOV. The following SSR (simple sequences repeat) markers were tested: phi 095, umc 1057, nc 004, phi 096, nc 007, umc 1564, phi 85, y1 SSR, umc 1178, nc 009, phi 070, umc 1066, umc 1741, umc 1069, phi 033, phi 061, wx, phi 032, phi 084 and phi 062. The analysis of the fragment patterns revealed three SSR markers that appeared to be correlated with the starch content of the maize lines. These were the primer pairs y1 SSR, umc 1069 and phi 062 . These results are only of a preliminary nature, however, as the incorporation of starch is probably regulated by several genes, and the studies suggest it is also influenced by several environmental factors. It also appears likely that the bioethanol yield is determined not only by the starch content, but also by other parameters. Further research should thus be expanded to include investigations into the structural and fermentability traits of starch molecules, including the characterisation of these traits using genetic markers.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Pauk
,
C. Lantos
,
G. Somogyi
,
P. Vági
,
Z. Ábrahám Táborosi
,
A. Gémes Juhász
,
R. Mihály
,
Z. Kristóf
,
N. Somogyi
, and
Z. Tímár

Spice pepper production has a history of almost 300 years in the southern part of Hungary. In this study the results of two biotechnological improvements are summarized. Anther and isolated microspore culture techniques were improved to release haploid and doubled haploid (DH) lines for spice pepper breeding. Both the anther and isolated microspore culture methods were successfully used in spice pepper haploid production. Microspore culture-derived structures were analysed to identify their different parts. Green plantlets were regenerated from embryos derived from both anther and microspore cultures. Their doubled haploid analogues were integrated into Hungarian spice pepper hybrid seed breeding programmes. One hybrid, Sláger, was released as a new genotype for spice pepper production in 2008 and two hybrid candidates (Délibáb and Bolero) are now being tested in official trials.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
H. Pikó
,
V. Vancsó
,
B. Nagy
,
J. Balog
,
M. Nagymihály
,
A. Herczegfalvi
,
L. Tímár
,
Z. Bán
, and
V. Karcagi

Muscular dystrophies are a genetically heterogeneous group of degenerative muscle disorders. This article focuses on two severe forms of muscular dystrophies and provides genetic data for a large cohort of Hungarian patients diagnosed within the last few years by the authors.The Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which is located on chromosome Xp21. The genetic analysis of dystrophin is usually performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects approximately 95% of all deletions but does not distinguish between one and two copies of the exons investigated. The present work, therefore, concentrates on the improvement of the diagnostic panel for the analysis of DMD/BMD in Hungary. Radioactively labelled cDNA probes, encompassing the whole dystrophin gene detect all the deletions and the analysis is quantitative. In addition, the new multiple ligationdependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was recently introduced that enabled more reliable and faster quantitative detection of the entire dystrophin gene. The genomic basis of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is associated with contraction of the D4Z4 repeat region in the subtelomere of chromosome 4q. In case of FSHD, molecular genetic criteria still have to be improved because of the complexity of the disorder.

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