To investigate the nutritional characteristics of purple wheat, 41 kinds of nutrients were measured in seven purple wheat lines using one white wheat variety as control sample. Correlation analysis of nutrient contents was performed. Results show that the amounts of 40 kinds of nutrients in the purple wheat lines are higher than those of the control. For example, the amounts of sodium (Na) and manganese (Mn) in purple wheat are higher than the standards by 311.77–2017.65% and 548.15–733.33%, respectively; the contents of β + γ-vitamin E is higher than the standards by 300%; and zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K) are all higher than the control by 100%. Therefore, the purple wheat has obvious advantages in terms of the nutrient contents. Correlation analysis studies show that protein has significant positive correlations with Glu, Mo, Pro, Fe, Tyr and Ile. Anthocyanin has significant positive correlations with Mo and Glu, and significant negative correlations with free Trp and Ca. Carotenoid has significant positive correlations with His, Lys, Val, Leu, Arg, Gly and I, and significant negative correlations with Ca. This paper is a first report on comprehensive nutrients of several purple wheat lines. Our results suggest that purple wheat is rich in nutrients and there are many significant correlations among different nutrients. The valuable information is very useful in biofortification breeding and functional food development.
Authors:Y. Sun, Q. Wang, S. Yang, G. Sheng, and Z. Guo
The nano-iron oxyhydroxides (α- and γ-FeOOH) were synthesized by using three ferrous and ferric salts (FeSO4, FeCl2, Fe(NO3)3) as iron precursors under alkaline conditions. Morphologies of nano-iron oxyhydroxides were characterized by employing X-ray
powder diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area (SSA) analysis respectively. The occurrence of needle-like shape of nano-goethite
and rod-like shape of nano-lepidocrocite were attributed to hydrolysis of Fe3+ cations and/or oxidization of Fe2+ at alkaline conditions in terms of XRD analysis. The N2-BET SSA and BJH (Barrett–Joyner–Halenda) pore size analysis showed that internal SSA of nano-lepidocrocite is higher than
that of nano-goethite, although they have similar N2-BET SSAs. The distribution of average pore size of nano-iron oxyhydroxides are higher than that of predominant pore size
due to formation of the heterogeneous nanoparticles under the experimental conditions. These nanoparticles possess the high
sorption capacity and the strong affinity for contaminants. Application of nano-iron oxyhydroxides in environmental engineering
plays an important role to remove a variety of contaminants, such as heavy-metal ions and organic pollutants.
Authors:Z. Yan, Z. Guo, D. Liu, S. Dai, Y. Wei, and Y. Zheng
is the generally accepted D genome diploid donor of hexaploid wheat. The significance of
HMW-GS genes on bread-making properties of bread wheat has been well documented. Among them,
was thought as the pair with potentially value in endowing synthetic hexaploid wheat with good end-use qualities. In this paper, we isolated and sequenced genes Dx5
accession As63. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that Dy12
is more similar to Dy10 rather than Dy12 of bread wheat. The sequence of Dx5
accession As63 showed higher similarity to that of Dx5 in bread wheat than others. However, it is notable that Dx5
lacked the additional cysteine residue in Dx5, which is responsible for good bread-making quality in common wheat. Moreover, compared to Dx5, Dx5
has an extra hexpeptide repetitive motif unit (SGQGQQ) as well as five amino acid substitutions.
Authors:C. Zhang, Y. Zhao, S. Feng, C. Qi, Z. Fu, F. Guo, and R. Wang
To increase the tumor uptake of Val-Gly-Gly (VGG), adenine was introduced into the peptide. N-mercaptoacetyl-VGG-adenine (MAVGG-adenine)
and MAVGG were labeled with 99mTc using a solution of SnCl2 and tartaric acid as reducing agent. Biodistribution in mice bearing the S180 tumor was measured and γ imaging was performed.
Compared with MAVGG, adenine conjugated MAVGG had higher tumor uptake and tumor to normal tissue ratios, which suggested that
the tumor uptake property of a peptide may be improved by introducing a nucleotide base. The high contrasted tumor images
of 99mTc-MAVGG-adenine also suggested its potential utility as tumor imaging agent.
Authors:Y. Zhao, C. Zhang, C. Qi, S. Feng, G. You, Z. Fu, F. Guo, and R. Wang
Two peptide ligands conjugated adenine, [9-N-(tritylmercapto acetyl diglycyl aminoethyl) adenine, Tr-MAG2-Ade] and [9-N-(tritylmercapto acetyl triglycyl aminoethyl) adenine, Tr-MAG3-Ade], are synthesized and labeled with 99mTc by directly labeling method. The stability of 99mTc-MAG2-adenine and 99mTc-MAG3-adenine in vitro is measured. The uptake radios of tumor to muscle at 3h post-injection are 5.70 and 4.92, respectively.
The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies show that the two complexes have high localization in tumor and high
contrasted tumor images can be obtained, which suggest their potential utility as tumor imaging agents. But the high radioactivity
of abdomen could prevent the tumor imaging in this area.
Authors:Y. Xu-Wu, Z. Hang-Guo, S. Wu-Juan, W. Xiao-Yan, and G. Sheng-Li
The copper(II) complex of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) has been prepared with dihydrated cupric chloride and 6-benzylaminopurine.
Infrared spectrum and thermal stabilities of the solid complex have been discussed. The constant-volume combustion energy,
ΔcU, has been determined as −12566.92±6.44 kJ mol−1 by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. From the results and other auxiliary quantities, the standard molar enthalpy
of combustion, ΔcHmθ, and the standard molar of formation of the complex, ΔfHmθ, were calculated as −12558.24±6.44 and −842.50±6.47 kJ mol−1, respectively.
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment on defence activation in grape berries and to analyse its cellular mechanism. The results implied that BABA treatment at an effective concentration of 20 mM significantly inhibited gray mould rot caused by Botrytis cinerea in grape berries by inducing resistance. Accordingly, 20 mM BABA triggered a priming defence in grape suspension cells, since only the BABA-treated cells exhibited an accelerated ability for augmenting defence responses upon the pathogen inoculation. The primed cellular reactions were related to an early H2O2 burst, prompt accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins and activation of PR genes. Thus, we assume that 20 mM BABA can induce resistance to B. cinerea infection in intact grape berries perhaps via intercellular priming defence. Moreover, the BABA-induced priming defence is verified, because no negative effects on cell growth, anthocyanin synthesis, and quality impairment in either grape cells or intact berries were observed under low pathogenic pressure.
Authors:Y. Cheng, H. F. Wang, H. F. Sun, H. L. Li, Y. F. Liu, S. X. Peng, K. X. Liu, and Z. Y. Guo
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive method to monitor and trace the environmental exposure levels of 14C-labeled molecules in vivo. Nicotine [3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Using 14C-labeled nicotine and AMS, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of curcumin, garlic squeeze, grapeseed extract, tea polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E, respectively, on nicotine-hemoglobin (Hb) adduction in vivo. The results demonstrated that these dietary constituents induced remarkable decrease of nicotine-Hb adducts. The inhibitory fact may afford an important clue of the chemoprevention of the potential nicotine-induced carcinogenesis.
Authors:M. Zhu, J. A. Duan, Y. P. Tang, J. M. Guo, E. X. Shang, and Z. H. Zhu
An efficient and robust method for analyzing constituents of a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula SiWu decoction (SWD) contains Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR), Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA), and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata (RRP) by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was established. The method efficiently applied to the separation of 75 compounds, including organic acids, phthalides, phenylpropanoid glycosides, iridoid glycosides, monoterpene glycosides, and galloyl glycosides in the complex prescription, 52 compounds in this study can be unambiguously identified or tentatively characterized. The separation was achieved within 20 min at the optimized chromatographic conditions. Our study provided a reliable and high-efficient method for the understanding of the chemical basis of SWD.
Authors:S. Hu, H. Shu, J.L. Yuan, J.Y. Gao, P.Y. Mu, C.Z. Ren, W. Sang, L.C. Guo, and H.B. Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the eﬀect of wheat–oat ﬂour ratio on the physical properties and β-glucan characteristics of extrudates. Results showed that increasing the wheat–oat ﬂour ratio resulted in a decrease in the water solubility index (r2=0.8567) and hardness (r2=0.9316), whereas the expansion ratio (r2=0.9307) and water absorption index (r2=0.9061) increased. Wheat ﬂour generally caused an increase in L values from 57.81 to 62.94 providing bright samples. Few cells were observed at high wheat–oat ﬂour ratios under a scanning electron microscope, and a smooth surface was noted. Meanwhile, the total (r2=0.9867) and soluble (r2=0.9848) β-glucan contents were inversely proportional to the wheat–oat ﬂour ratio. Extrudates with added wheat ﬂour had a high molecular weight, but wheat ﬂour had no signiﬁcant (P<0.05) eﬀect on the viscosity of β-glucan extracts. Conclusively, incorporation of wheat ﬂour at a wheat–oat ﬂour ratio of 2.33 provides ready-to-eat food based on whole oat ﬂour, on account of improving the texture and providing suﬃcient β-glucan contents (0.806 g/100 g) without signiﬁcantly aﬀecting β-glucan viscosity.