The adsorption of the organic anionic dye Congo red (CR) by montmorillonite saturated with Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Al3+ and Fe3+ was investigated by XRD of unwashed and washed samples after equilibration at 40% humidity and after heating at 360 and at 420°C. The clay was treated with different amounts of CR, most of which was adsorbed. Clay samples, untreated with CR, after heating showed collapsed interlayer space. Unwashed and washed samples, which contained CR, before heating were characterized by three peaks or shoulders, labeled A (at 0.96-0.99 nm, collapsed interlayers), B (at 1.24-1.36 nm) and C (at 2.10-2.50 nm). Peak B represents adsorbed monolayers of water and dye anions inside the interlayer spaces. Peak C represents interlayer spaces with different orientations of the adsorbed water and organic matter. Diffractograms of samples with small amounts of dye were similar to those without dye showing peak B whereas diffractograms of most samples with high amounts of dye showed an additional peak C. Heated unwashed and washed samples were also characterized by three peaks or shoulders, labeled A' (at 0.96 nm), B' (at 1.10-1.33 nm) and C' (at 1.61-2.10 nm), representing collapsed interlayers, and interlayers with charcoal composed of monolayers or multilayers of carbon. When the samples were heated from 360 to 420°C some of the charcoal monolayers underwent rearrangement to multilayers. In the case of Cu the charcoal decomposed and oxidized. The present results show that most of the adsorbed dye was located inside the interlayer space.
An intense blue organo-clay color pigment was obtained by adding naphthyl-1-ammonium chloride to a Na-montmorillonite aqueous
suspension followed by treatment with sodium nitrite. This treatment resulted in the synthesis of the azo dye 4-(1-naphthylazo)-1-naphthylamine
adsorbed onto the clay. The pigment was subjected to thermo-XRD-analysis and the diffractograms were curve-fitted. Heating
naphthylammonium-montmorillonite at 360°C resulted in the evolution of the amine at temperatures lower than those required
for the formation of charcoal and consequently the clay collapsed. On the other hand, heating the pigment at 360°C resulted
in the conversion of the adsorbed azo dye into charcoal. The clay did not collapse, thus proving that the azo dye was located
inside the interlayer space. Before the thermal treatment a short basal spacing in the pigment compared with that in the ammonium
clay (1.28 and 1.35 nm, respectively) indicated stronger surface π interactions between the clayey O-plane and the azo dye
than between this plane and naphthylammonium cation. The amount of dye after one aging-day of the synthesis-suspension increased
with [NaNO2]/[C10H7NH3] ratio but did not increase with naphthylammonium when the [NaNO2]/[C10H7NH3] ratio remained 1. After 7 and 56 aging days it decreased, indicating that some of the dye decomposed during aging.
Authors:Z. Yermiyahu, Anna Kogan, I. Lapides, I. Pelly, and S. Yariv
The blue organo-clay color pigment (OCCP) naphthylazonaphthylammonium-montmorillonite was synthesized from the white naphthylammonium-montmorillonite
by treating with NaNO2, the azo colorant being located in the interlayer space. The following effects on the basal spacing of naphthylazonaphthylammonium-and
naphthylammonium-clay were investigated: (1) the amount of naphthylammonium loading the clay, (2) the amount of NaNO2 used for the staining, (3) aging of the preparation suspension and (4) thermal treatment. Samples were heated at 120, 180,
240, 300 and 360°C and diffracted by X-ray. During aging, some of the dye decomposed.
Samples, after one day aging, were investigated by DTA. During the dehydration stage both organo-clays gradually decomposed,
the naphthylammonium-clay at 120°C and the OCCP at 180°C. That fraction of organic matter, which did not escape, was air-oxidized
at above 200°C and charcoal was obtained. The appearance and size of the DTA exothermic peaks depended on the amount of organic
matter, which did not escape and this depended on the total amount of organic matter in the DTA cell. DTA proved that naphthylammonium
reacted with NaNO2 to form OCCP.