The phase behaviour and phase stability of lipids are of importance in an understanding of the biological functions of cell membranes. Among a variety of physical techniques employed to study the phase behaviour and structural properties of polar lipids, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction have proved to be successful and are the most frequently used methods. Applications involving a combination of the two techniques, particularly when synchrotron radiation is used as the light source of X-ray diffraction, are reviewed in this article.
Authors:Z. Smelaya, L. Matkovskaya, and Yu. Goltsov
Supramolecular structures of lecithin occurred to be the template in the synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicates; using of
various combinations of lecithin and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide or octadecylamine as templating agents allowed to obtain
mesoporous substances with pores up to 100 , as well as biporous materials in aluminosilicate system. In the presence of
glucose oxidase and cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide combinations aluminosilicate substances with complex porous structure
were shown to be formed (pore size distributions exhibited 3 peaks, corresponding 3 effective size of mesopores in the 30–100
range). The investigation of sorption of glucose oxidase on obtained aluminosilicate mesoporous substances was carried out,
the results obtained allowus to consider such materials as prospect for creation high capable and selective sorbents for biomolecules
sorption, as well as active elements of chemical and biosensors.
Authors:Z. Mulchenko, Yu. Granovsky, and A. Strakhov
A comparative analysis of the information activities of leading scientists has been carried out, including 5 Soviet chemists and 5 foreign ones, and 8 Soviet physicists, specialist in low temperature physics. Within chemists there has appeared a tendency to a new form of scientific activities, namely ephemeron teams which favour the production line mode of getting new information. In physics, the traditional scheme is preserved: leading scientists publish few articles and have few co-authors. The ephemeron teams produce an expanding information: new objects and processes are studied from the previously elaborated point of view. The specific average citation rate (number of references per number of papers) is a criterion for separating the publications of the intellectual industry from the pilot studies full of novel ideas.
Kinetics of CaO desulphurization reaction and the effects of alkali carbonates on it have been investigated by thermogravimetric
analysis. A grain model was applied successfully to describe the kinetic behavior of the reactions. The activation energy
of surface reaction and that of the product layer diffusion were determined by using the model. It was found that the overall
desulphurization rate was controlled initially by surface chemical reaction and, in a later stage, by product layer diffusion.
Addition of alkali carbonates can decrease the activation energy of the surface chemical reaction, with increasing effectiveness
in the order of potassium, sodium and lithium. Such a property of alkali carbonates has also been demonstrated on a raw coal.
The process is discussed in terms of a working mechanism of solid-state ionic diffusion.
Hydroponic studies were conducted to investigate the role of iron plaque on transport and distribution of chromium (Cr) by rice seedlings. Microscopical observations indicate that iron plaque developed quickly at the root surface of rice seedlings, but the distribution of iron plaque was more intense near root base and less towards root tip. Results showed that rice seedlings exposed to Cr(III) depicted significantly higher capacity for Cr accumulation in plant tissues than Cr(VI) in the presence of iron plaque. However, transport of Cr within plant cells was more evident in Cr(VI) treatment with iron plaque than Cr(III) treatment. Results also showed that there are significant impact on transport of K, Mn and Zn in rice seedlings treated with Cr(VI) in the presence of iron plaque, while significant effect on transport of Mn and Zn were observed in Cr(III)-treated rice seedlings. Results from detached root test provide additional evidence to confirm the presence of iron plaque, that had different impact on Cr uptake when Cr(VI) or Cr(III) was supplied.
Authors:S. Yu, S. Wang, Z. Tan, C. Liao, and Y. Li
A novel AB2-type monomer diethyl 5-(4-hydroxyethoxyphenylazo)isophthalate for preparing hyperbranched azo polymers (HBPAZO) was synthesized.
The monomer obtained was characterized by IR spectra, UV–Vis spectra, 1H NMR spectrum and C NMR spectrum. The TG-DTG/DTA curves show that the decomposition of the monomer proceeds in four steps.
During the second-step decomposition, the mass loss occurs between 480.5 K and 579.0 K and the phenomena of condensing to
HBPAZO for the melted monomer was found. So it is inferred that this temperature range is the best for polycondensation of
the melted monomer, which is very important for synthesizing of HBPAZO.
Authors:S. Milesz, Yu. Norseev, Z. Szücs, and L. Vasáros
The complex formation of astatine/I/ cation with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid /DTPA/ and characterization of the complexes were investigated by electromigration in free electrolytes and by gel-chromatography on Sephadex G 25. We describe the conjugation procedure for the production of At-DTPA conjugated polyclonal antibodies.
Authors:Z. Lu, S. Chen, Y. Yu, J. Sun, and S. Xiang
Thermal behaviour of tri(O,O'-diisopropyldithiophosphate)cobalt(III), Co(dptp)3 and bis (O,O'-diethyldithiophosphate)nickel(II), Ni(detp)2 and its adducts with pyridine, Ni(detp)2(py)2 or 4-methylpyridine, Ni(detp)(mpy)2 in a dynamic nitrogen atmosphere was investigated by TG-DTG and DSC techniques, which showed a medium endothermic peak for
the evolution process of pyridine(or 4-methylpyridine) and a strong exothermic peak for that of O,O'-diethyldithiophosphate.
The thermal stability and decomposition patterns for these compounds were compared and interpreted in terms of structural
features such as bond character and steric effects. The kinetic parameters and mechanisms of every decomposition stage involved
for all these complexes were obtained employing the non-isothermal kinetic analysis method suggested by Malek et al., which
showed the kinetics mechanism for pyrolysis of pyridine(or 4-methylpyridine) is an S-B empirical model with lower activation
energy, while that of O,O'-dialkyldithiophosphate is a diffusion model. These results are in accord with the fact that two
ligands are of different type.
Co-combustion experiments of mixture of Huadian
oil shale and Heshan coal with high sulphur content have been conducted using
a thermogravimetric analyzer. The effects of five different Ca/S mol ratios
on the combustion characteristics of mixture fuel are analyzed using TG and
DTG curves. The results show that the initial temperature of combustion of
mixture fuel is decreased with an increase in the oil shale content of mixture
fuel. The combustion characteristic of mixture fuel is superior to that of
Heshan coal. Adding about 20 mass% Huadian oil shale into Heshan coal is feasible
for desulfurization of mixture fuel during combustion.