The heat capacities of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-phenylalanine (abbreviated to NTBLP in this article), as an important chemical intermediates used to synthesize proteins and polypeptides, were measured by means of a fully automated adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 350 K. The measured experimental heat capacities were fitted to a polynomial equation as a function of temperature. The thermodynamic functions, HT − H298.15K and ST − S298.15K, were calculated based on the heat capacity polynomial equation in the temperature range of (80–350 K) with an interval of 5 K. The thermal stability of the compound was further studied using TG and DSC analyses; a possible mechanism for thermal decomposition of the compound was suggested.
Authors:X. He, Z. Zhang, L. Feng, Z. Li, J. Yang, Y. Zhao, and Z. Chai
After an acute exposure to lanthanum chloride, the pharmacokinetics of calcium uptake in rats was studied by radioactive 47Ca tracer. The accumulated doses of calcium in the left femurs during 24 hours were determined. The results showed that the
area under the curves (AUC), specific activity of maximal blood 47Ca concentration (Cmax), distribution rate constant (Ka) and the accumulated dose of calcium in the left femur decreased while time to Cmax (Tpeak) increased with the rising dosage of lanthanum exposure. It indicated that lanthanum expose had a negative effect on calcium
In this article, the enthalpy of dissolution for oxymatrine in 0.15 M citric acid solution is measured using a RD496-2000 Calvet Microcalorimeter at 36.5 °C under atmospheric pressure. The differential enthalpy (ΔdifHm) and molar enthalpy (ΔsolHm) were determined for oxymatrine dissolution in 0.15 M citric acid solution. On the basis of these experimental data and calculated results, the kinetic equation, half-life, ΔsolHm, ΔsolGm, and ΔsolSm of the dissolution process were also obtained.
Authors:Z. Dang, F. Zhao, S. Li, C. Yin, and R. Hu
The thermal decomposition characteristics of1,7-diazido-2,4,6-trinitrazaheptane (DATH) and multi-component systems containing
DATH were studied by using DSC, TG and DTG techniques. Three –NO2 groups in the DATH molecule break away first from the main chain when DATH is heated up to 200C. Following this process,
the azido groups and the residual molecule decompose rapidly to release a great deal of heat within a short time. In the multi-component
systems, DATH undergoes a strong interaction with the binder of the double-base propellant and a weak interaction with RDX.
The burning rates of the two propellants were determined by using a Crawford bomb. The results showed that the burning rate
rises by about 19–66% when 23.5%DATH is substituted for RDX in a minimum smoke propellant. Meanwhile, the N2 level in the combustion gases is enhanced, which is valuable for a reduction of the signal level of the solid propellant.
Laburnine's dissolution behaviors in glucose and saline solution were studied by a micro-calorimetry method. The measured integral and differential heats of solution were utilized to build equations of the solute and the heat, so that dissolution thermodynamic equations and half-time periods, ΔsolHm, ΔsolGm, and ΔsolSm were obtained. The results show that this study does not only provide a simple method for the determination of the half-life period for a drug but also offer a theoretical reference for the clinical application of laburnine.
Authors:L. Yang, F. Xu, L. Sun, Z. Zhao, and C. Song
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the effect of cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium) on the E. coli growth. The microbial activity was recorded as power-time curves through an ampoule method with a TAM Air Isothermal Microcalorimeter
at 37°C. The parameters such as the growth rate constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), the maximum power output (Pm) and the time corresponding to the maximum power output (tm) were calculated. The change tendencies of k, with the increasing of concentration (C) of the two cephalosporins, are similar which show that cefazolin sodium and cefonicid sodium have the same inhibitory mechanism.
The experimental results reveal that cefonicid sodium has a stronger antibacterial activity towards E. coli than that of cefazolin sodium and this was coincide with the clinical manifestations.
Microcalorimetry was applied to study the toxic action of two cobalt compounds such as bis(salicylideniminato-3-propyl)methylaminocobalt(II)
(denoted as Co(II)) and Co(III) sepulchrate trichloride (denoted as Co(sep)3+) on (E. coli) DH5α. The power-time curves of the E. coli DH5α growth were determined, and the thermokinetics parameters such as the growth rate constant k, the maximum power output Pm and the time (tm) corresponding to the Pm were obtained. The half-inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Co(II) and Co(sep)3+ to E. coli DH5α were 15 and 42.1 mg mL−1, respectively.
The experimental results revealed that the toxicity of the Co(II) compound was larger than that of Co(sep)3+. On the other hand, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the two cobalt compounds had the same toxic
mechanism on E. coli DH5α, which was attributed to the damage of cell wall of the bacteria caused by both Co(II) and Co(sep)3+. Furthermore, accumulation of intracellular cobalt of E. coli DH5α, due to the interaction of Co(II) or Co(sep)3+ and E. coli DH5α, has been found by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analytical technique.
Authors:S. Dong, X. Shi, Q. Liu, Z. Zhang, and L. Zhao
A simple hydrolysis method has been developed for determination of phenylethanoid glycosides in Lamiophlomis rotata (L.R.). Different kinds of phenylethanoid glycosides were hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid solution to produce corresponding phenethyl alcohols and cinnamic acids, mainly containing hydroxytyrosol, homovanillyl alcohol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl alcohol, caffeic acid, fumalic acid and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid. The six analytes could be determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of mobile phase, pH and concentration of running buffer, detection wavelength, flow rate and injection volume were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the six hydrolyzates could be perfectly separated within 45 min. The response was linear over four orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 1 × 10−8 to 1.5 × 10−4 mol L−1 for the analytes. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real sample Du-Yi-Wei capsule and Qi-Zheng-Yan-Tong patch, with satisfactory results.
Authors:Z. Dang, L. Fan, Y. Shen, C. Nan, and S. Zhao
Different scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis are used to study the thermal behavior of composites by melt-mixing
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix and zinc oxide whisker (ZnOw) fillers. Micrographs of the composites illustrate that needle or wedge shaped ZnOw are distributed uniformly in the LDPE matrix. Dielectric properties of the composites are measured in a frequency range of
1-10 MHZ. The results show that the addition of ZnOw does not affect the melting behavior of LDPE, but has an important effect on the heat of fusion, dynamic mechanical behavior,
and dielectric behavior of the composites.
Authors:C. Liu, Y. Zhao, S. Li, H. Teng, and Z. Wang
The concentration of radon in an underground research facility (URF) was measured by setting up 12 sampling points in the
URF and with 3 different measurement methods. All the methods were calibrated in the radon laboratory of the No. 6 Institute
of Nuclear Industry. The accumulation of radon in the URF was observed before a ventilation system was applied. The reduction
of radon concentration in the URF by 1-hour ventilation was also observed. Experimental result indicates that the concentration
of radon in the URF increased from 15 to 50 Bq·m−3 in 5 days without ventilation, and decreased to less than 10 Bq·m−3 with 1-hour ventilation. Applying the average working time of 4 hours per day of the workers in the URF, the additional effective
dose is 0.75 msv·y−1 when 1 hour ventilation is applied before entering the URF and 13 mSv·y−1 without ventilation. These figures strongly suggest that for the health of the workers, ventilation in such underground research
facilities is needed.