The Flory's gelation theory, non-equilibrium thermodynamic fluctuation theory and Avrami equation have been used to predict
the gel time tg and the cure behavior of epoxy resin/organo-montmorillonite/diethylenetriamine intercalated nanocomposites at various temperatures
and organo-montmorillonite loadings. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results obtained
by dynamic torsional vibration method, and the results show that the addition of organo-montmorillonite reduces the gelation
time tgand increases the rate of curing reaction, the value of k, and half-time of cure after gelation point t1/2 decreases with the increasing of cure temperature, and the value of n is ~2 at the lower temperatures (<60C) and decreases to ~1.5 as the temperature increases, and the addition of organo-montmorillonite
decreases the apparent activation energy of the cure reaction before gelation point, but has no apparent effect on the apparent
activation energy of the cure reaction after gelation point. There is no special curing process required for the formation
of epoxy resin/organo-montmorillonite/diethylenetriamine intercalated nanocomposite.
Authors:Ping Zhou, Z. Wang, Y. Xu, Lei Zhang and Y. Wang
Uranyl luminescences in phosphoric acid system has been studied. Uranyl excited by a nitrogen laser shows single or biexponential luminescence decays in the phosphoric acid system. When the uranyl ion or phosphoric acid concentration are lower, a single exponential luminescence decay appears, whereas at higher uranyl ion or phosphoric acid concentrations, biexponential decay is observed. Time-resolved spectra of uranyl in this system are measured. The reasons of the phenomena are tentatively established.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/organic-montmorillonite composites were prepared by melt intercalation. Their structures and properties
were investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical testing. The results
showed that PVC chains could be intercalated into the gallery of organically modified montmorillonite to form exfoliated PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites, and the glass transition temperatures of PVC/organic-montmorillonite composites were lower than that of neat
PVC. However, the tensile strength, and both the Izod type and Charpy notched impact strengths of PVC/organic-montmorillonite
nanocomposites were fitted with the linear expressions: t=535.07-6.39Tg, sI=378.76-4.59Tg and sC=276.29-3.59Tg, respectively.
Authors:D. Zhou, H. Gong, Z. Luan, J. Hu and F. Wu
The study site is the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar designated site on the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. We present results regarding the spatial pattern and structure of plant communities in these most important natural but continually diminishing freshwater wetlands of China to help promote both protection and restoration. By investigating three ecological levels (landscape, ecosystem and community), this paper quantifies the characteristics of spatial pattern with the aim to identify specific ecological correlations with different hydrogeomorphic features. Specifically, the research involves hierarchical mapping of vegetation types by use of remote sensed data, and the coupling of landscape indices with fluvial topographic zones that have been deduced by GIS from DEM. Statistics from historical survey data are also used to measure the degradation of marshes as well as the historical change of the hydrological regime. We found that dominant is the
Calamagrostis angustifolia — Carex
spp. community type, a wet meadow and marsh complex within the prevailing landscape mosaic of shrubland and meadow. The results suggest that the sites’ hydro-geomorphic character has decisive influence on plant community structure and composition. There is only limited direct human interference in the sites and, as a consequence, the spatial pattern of vegetation distribution is natural. However, changes to the hydrological regime as the result of extensive irrigation activity in the surrounding area has led to rapid degradation of marsh wetlands within the sites, which threatens the ecological status in this storehouse of “Natural Genes” in the reserve.
Authors:Q. Xu, H. Fan, Z. Jiang, Z. Zhou, L. Yang, F. Mei and L. Qu
This research was aimed to study the cell wall degradation and the dynamic changes of Ca2+ and related enzymes in developing aerenchyma of wheat root under waterlogging. An examination of morphological development by light and electron microscope revealed that the structure of cell wall in middle cortical cells remained intact after 12 h of waterlogging and turned thinner after waterlogging for 24 h. At 48 h, the aerenchyma has been formed. The cellulase activity gradually increased in middle cortical cells within 24 h of waterlogging, and decreased with the formation of aerenchyma. Fluorescence detection and subcellular localization of Ca2+ showed the dynamic changing of Ca2+ at the cellular and subcellular levels during the development of aerenchyma. The activity of Ca2+-ATPase enhanced markedly in intercellular space, plasma membrane and tonoplast of some middle cortical cells after 8 h of waterlogging and remained high after 24 h, but it decreased after 48 h of waterlogging. All these suggests that cellulase, Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase show a dynamic distribution during the aerenchyma development which associated with the cell wall degradation of middle cortical cells. Moreover, there is a feedback regulation between Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase.
Authors:C. Liu, Z. Yang, J. Jia, G. Li, J. Zhou and Z. Ren
Knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of long terminal repeats (LTR) is important for understanding plant chromosome structure, genomic organization and evolution, as well as providing chromosomal landmarks that are useful for chromosome engineering. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic distribution of
-like LTR pDbH12, which was first isolated from
species in relation to the genomic evolution and chromosome identification. Fluorescence
hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that pDbH12 is present on
(V genome) and
(H genome) species with the hybridized signals covering the entire chromosomes. However, clone pDbH12 did not hybridize to the genomes of
Secale, Triticum, Lophopyrum, Pseduoroengeria, Aegilops, Agropyron desertorum
Elymus. Thinopyrum intermedium
displayed fourteen chromosomes that hybridized with pDbH12. Sequential FISH identified these chromosomes as belonging to the J
genome. Results from sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker and dot blot both support the FISH results, and the integrative results suggest that amplification of
-like LTR retrotransposons is an important factor which involved in the speciation process. Clone pDbH12 could serve as a cytogenetic marker for tracing chromatin from V or V
, H and J
genomes in wheat-alien introgression lines.
Authors:J. Zhou, Z. Yang, J. Feng, X. Zhang, G. Li and Z. Ren
plays an important role in wheat improvement. Here we report a new triticale, named Fenzhi-1, derived from the wide cross MY11
after the in vitro rye pollen has been irradiated by He-Ne laser. Morphologically, Fenzhi-1 is characterized by branched-spikes. Genetically, Fenzhi-1 displays stable fertility and immunity to wheat powdery mildew and stripe rust. In situ hybridization (FISH) and seed storage protein electrophoresis revealed that Fenzhi-1 is a new primary hexaploid triticale (AABBRR). The present study not only provides a new method to synthesize an artificial species, but also shows that Fenzhi-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement.
Authors:W. Dong, W. Li, H. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. You, C. Zhou, J. Du and Z. Tao
The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Co(II) complexes with the red earth fulvic acid were determined at pH
3.8–6.8 and ionic strength 0.0010–1.0 mol/l by using the cation exchange equilibrium method and the radiotracer60Co. The effects of ionic strength and pH on the stability constants of 1∶1 Co(II) complexes were investigated, and it was
found that the stability constants of complexes of humic substances do not vary with ionic strength and pH in a manner similar
to that of simple complexes.
Authors:J. Du, W. Li, H. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. You, C. Zhou, W. Dong and Z. Tao
The stability constants for tracer concentrations of Co(II) complexes with both the red earth humic and fulvic acids were
determined at pH 5.9 and ionic strength 0.010 mol/l by using theArdakani-Stevenson cation exchange equilibrium method and the radiotracer60Co. It was found that the 1:1 complexes of Co(II) with the red earth humic and fulvic acids were formed and that the average
values of logβ (stability constant) of humic and fulvic acid complexes were 5.76±0.19 and 4.42±0.03, respectively.
Authors:Z. Wang, M. Lv, D. Li, Z. Zhou, L. Zhang and W. Yang
A new HPLC method has been established for determination of 3-monoiodotyrosine (MIT), 3,5-diiodotyrosine (DIT), 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3), and thyroxine (T4) produced by hydrolysis of iodinated casein with barium hydroxide. The hydrolytic stability of each analyte was evaluated. Iodinated casein was hydrolyzed with saturated barium hydroxide solution for 16 h at 110°C and the barium ions were then removed as barium sulfate. Reversed-phase HPLC was performed on a 2.1 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm particle, C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min–1. Acetonitrile was maintained at 5% (v/v) for 5 min and then increased linearly to 50% (v/v) within 35 min. All analytes were quantified by measuring the absorbance at 280 nm. Validation data indicated the method was linear, with regression coefficients (R2) > 0.998, in the concentration ranges investigated. Sensitivity was adequate—limits of detection (LOD) were 0.04–0.38 μg mL–1 and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05–0.38 μg mL–1. Accuracy and precision were acceptable — for all the analytes recovery was 82.0–93.0% and repeatability, as relative standard deviation, was 1.0–3.0%. Hydrolytic stability tests indicated MIT and DIT are much more stable than the other analytes. rT3 was not released directly from iodinated casein but was formed by deiodination of T4 during hydrolysis. The method could be used to identify iodinated casein, to evaluate its activity and quality, and for supervision and regulation of feed additives.