Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis
diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results
show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83
to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference
between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.
A complex of Erbium perchloric acid coordinated with l-aspartic acid and imidazole, Er2(Asp)2(Im)8(ClO4)6·10H2O was synthesized for the first time. It was characterized by IR and elements analysis. The heat capacity and thermodynamic properties of the complex were studied with an adiabatic calorimeter (AC) from 80 to 390 K and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from 100 to 300 K. Glass transition and phase transition were discovered at 220.45 and 246.15 K, respectively. The glass transition was interpreted as a freezing-in phenomenon of the reorientational motion of ClO4− ions and the phase transition was attributed to the orientational order/disorder process of ClO4− ions. The thermodynamic functions [HT − H298.15] and [ST − S298.15] were derived in the temperature range from 80 to 390 K with temperature interval of 5 K. Thermal decomposition behavior of the complex in nitrogen atmosphere was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
Authors:X.-Z. Lan, Z.-C. Tan, Q. Shi, and Z.-H. Gao
A novel gelling method was studied to stabilize phase change material Na2HPO4 · 12H2O with amylose grafted sodium acrylate. Gelled Na2HPO4 · 12H2O shows stable heat storage performance prepared at optimized conditions: 2.7mass/mass% sodium acrylate, 0.4 mass/mass% amylose,
0.05–0.09 mass/mass% N, N′-methylenebisacrylamide, 0.05–0.09 mass/mass% K2S2O8 and Na2SO3 (mass ratio 1:1), at 50 °C. Na2HPO4 · 12H2O was dispersed in gel network as tiny crystals less than 0.1 mm. Melting points were in the range 35.4 ± 2 °C. Short-term
thermal cycling proves the effectiveness of the novel method for eliminating phase separation in the gelled salt. Adiabatic
calorimetric measurement of heat capacities shows two phase transitions, which correspond to melting of Na2HPO4 · 12H2O and freezable bond water in gel, respectively. Heat of fusion of pure Na2HPO4 · 12H2O was determined as 260.9 J g−1. Distribution of extra water is: free water:freezable water:nonfreezing water = 0:0.85:0.15.
Authors:J. Xu, C. Tian, Z. Ma, M. Gao, H. Guo, and Z. Yao
The effects of some kinds of metal ions used as chemical modifications on the thermal properties of the modified polyacrylonitrile
(PAN) fibers were studied by DTA, TG, GC and cone calorimetry. The apparent activation energies for the decomposition of the
unmodified and modified PAN fibers were determined using Kissinger equation and Broido equation.
Authors:Y. Takizawa, S. Gao, H. Zhu, T. Abe, Z. Yamashita, and K. Komura
Technetium-99 was determined in nine human liver samples collected from autopsy of the subjects at the Niigata Prefecture Institute for Cancer Research Hospital. Even by using a very sensitive analytical procedure99Tc was detected in only one human liver sample. Though99Tc was detected in only one liver, nonetheless it is very important to study its distribution in the human body because of the contribution from fallout of nuclear weapons tests and prevalent use of99mTc in nuclear medicine.
Optimization of extraction ratio (ER) of tree peony seed protein (TPSP) was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The second-degree equation for ER of TPSP had high coeffi cient (0.9625) of determination. The probability (P) value of regression model signifi cance was less than 0.001 by analysis of central composite rotatable design. Relationships of ER to pH, liquid/solid ratio, squares of all factors, and cross-product factors (x2x3, x2x4, x3x4) were signifi cant (P<0.05). Whereas, extraction time, temperature, and cross-product terms (x1x2, x1x3, x1x4) were not signifi cant factors (P>0.05). Optimum extraction conditions were 3.42 h, pH 9.50, 50.80 ºC, and 9.54 ml g–1 of liquid/solid ratio with the maximum ER (43.60%) . SDS-PAGE indicated TPSP had mainly four proteins (180, 100, 60, and 35 kDa) with four subunits of 60, 48, 38, and 23 kDa. TPSP had a good amino acid composition with abundant essential amino acids (39.76%) determined by amino acid analysis.
Soil moisture is a major driving force of plant community succession in restored meadows. Existing studies mainly focus on diversity-productivity relationships. However, studies which determine the effects of soil moisture on the plant community properties in restored meadows are lacking. In this study, we conducted a chronosequence analysis of the interactions between soil water content variation and plant community properties in meadows following passive restoration (3-, 5-, 9-, 14-, 17-, 21-year restoration) of abandoned farmlands on the Sanjiang Plain, China. Results showed that the plant community was characterized by ruderal plants in the initial year of succession, and then by perennial plants such as Calamagrostis angustifolia and Carex spp. in older restored meadows. Similarity of restored community to target site increased across succession time whereas species diversity gradually decreased. Plant height, coverage and biomass increased with restoration time, with plant density being the exception. The community height, coverage and root/shoot ratio were positively related to the water content in the surface soil layer (0–10 cm). Conversely, plant density was significantly and negatively related with soil moisture at 0–10 cm soil depth. Plant diversity (Shannon index, Richness index and evenness) was closely correlated to soil water content at the soil depth of 0–10 cm. Our findings indicate that vegetation of cultivated meadows could be effectively restored by passive restoration. Change of plant species diversity is an especially important response to hydrological recovery in restored meadows on the Sanjiang Plain.
Authors:A. He, M. Ye, Z. Tang, S. Lu, H. Cao, Y. Gu, X. Fan, L. Zhao, and J. Gao
The recombination of hydrogen and oxygen in technical gaseous waste of nuclear power plants has been studied. A highly efficient catalyst for reacting H2 with O2 to form water was prepared. Various operating conditions and factors affecting the recombination of H2 and O2 were tested and the best conditions were determined. Results show that the Pd–Al2O3 catalyst prepared had very good characteristics. The recombination rate of H2 and O2 was higher than 98.3% and 99.9%, respectively. After recombination, residual concentrations of H2 and O2 in waste gas were O2<3 ppm, H2<400 ppm. The Pd–Al2O3 catalyst and operating conditions determined for gaseous waste processing of nuclear power plants were satisfactory.
Authors:J. Wang, C. Chen, H. Yu, J. Sun, B. Li, Y. Li, Y. Gao, W. He, Y. Huang, Z. Chai, Y. Zhao, X. Deng, and H. Sun
The characterization of different sized TiO2 (25 nm, 80 nm, and 155 nm) was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the micro-distributions of TiO2 in the olfactory bulb of mice after nasal inhalation were investigated by microbeam SRXRF mapping techniques. The results
show that TiO2 particles can be translocated to the olfactory bulb through the olfactory nerve system after inhalation. The distributions
of Fe, Cu, and Zn in the olfactory bulb were also studied.
Authors:S. Hu, H. Shu, J.L. Yuan, J.Y. Gao, P.Y. Mu, C.Z. Ren, W. Sang, L.C. Guo, and H.B. Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the eﬀect of wheat–oat ﬂour ratio on the physical properties and β-glucan characteristics of extrudates. Results showed that increasing the wheat–oat ﬂour ratio resulted in a decrease in the water solubility index (r2=0.8567) and hardness (r2=0.9316), whereas the expansion ratio (r2=0.9307) and water absorption index (r2=0.9061) increased. Wheat ﬂour generally caused an increase in L values from 57.81 to 62.94 providing bright samples. Few cells were observed at high wheat–oat ﬂour ratios under a scanning electron microscope, and a smooth surface was noted. Meanwhile, the total (r2=0.9867) and soluble (r2=0.9848) β-glucan contents were inversely proportional to the wheat–oat ﬂour ratio. Extrudates with added wheat ﬂour had a high molecular weight, but wheat ﬂour had no signiﬁcant (P<0.05) eﬀect on the viscosity of β-glucan extracts. Conclusively, incorporation of wheat ﬂour at a wheat–oat ﬂour ratio of 2.33 provides ready-to-eat food based on whole oat ﬂour, on account of improving the texture and providing suﬃcient β-glucan contents (0.806 g/100 g) without signiﬁcantly aﬀecting β-glucan viscosity.