Authors:Zheng Fang, Shaofen Wang, and Zhenghua Zhang
An experiment was done on electrochemical–calorimetry to identify the Peltier heats of the ferro-ferricyanide reversible electrode reaction over the concentration range of 0.075–0.3 mol dm−3 at 298.15 K. A new approach has been developed to obtain the standard potential of this electrode, which was identified as (+0.3580 ± 0.0030) volt at 298.15 K and compared with previously reported values. An equation derived from the approach is also applied to several standard couples, such as Fe(CN)6−3/Fe(CN)6−4, H+/H2, Cu2+/Cu, Cl−/Hg2Cl2,Hg, Fe3+/Fe2+, and Cl−/Cl2 to determine their respective reaction heats with satisfying results.
Authors:Hengzhong Zhang, Pinming Zhang, and Zheng Fang
The mathematical-physical equation concerning the process of calorimetry of electrode reactions was deduced, and the corresponding
solutions were obtained respectively for the period of the electrochemical polarization and that of the natural cooling. The
calorimetry of the anodic oxidation of ferrocyanide to ferricyanide under linear sweep-current polarization was carried out,
the obtained apparent enthalpy change of the electrode reaction agreed well with that obtained by the calorimetry with constant
currents. The developed calorimetry with linear sweep-current and the data processing method are applicable for quick determination
of apparent enthalpy changes of electrode reactions.
Authors:Fang Geng, Nan Hu, Ji-Fang Zheng, Cheng-Lei Wang, Xin Chen, Jia Yu, and De-Xin Ding
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential ecological danger and toxic effect of uranium mill tailings leaching
solution (UMTLS) on aquatic animals. UMTLS was identified to contain two radioactive elements, nine heavy metal elements,
and five non-metallic materials. The acute toxicity test indicated that the 1, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of UMTLS to the zebrafish were 12.1, 7.1, 4.4, 3.8, 3.4, and 2.9%, respectively. In sub-lethal toxicity tests, superoxide
dismutase, catalase, Na+–K+–ATPase activities, and malondialdehyde content were respectively determined and analyzed in the zebrafish gill, gonad, muscle,
and liver after exposed to four different concentration levels of UMTLS for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The result showed
that the most sensitivity of the antioxidant system in zebrafish tissues in UMTLS was gill, and then decreased in gonad, muscle
and liver respectively. Na+–K+–ATPase activity in the liver and gonad may be considered as a reference biomarker of UMTLS stress. The data in this study
may be valuable that the toxicity of such as the leaching solution of potentially hazardous material was compared with that
of each constituent.
Authors:Kai Zheng Fang, Dao Bin Mu, Shi Chen, Feng Wu, and Xiao Jun Zeng
The thermal behavior of D-type Ni–MH battery during charging was investigated at a wide range of ambient temperatures in this work. The temperature measurement of the battery was conducted by using a thermal infrared imager put in a high–low temperature chamber. The ambient temperatures were controlled to −10, 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C during charging. The battery was charged to SOC of 110% in the rate of 1C, 3C, and 5C. Real-time infrared thermal images of battery surface were obtained during charging, as well as temperature change curves. The maximum surface temperature of the battery at the end of charging was stimulated at a higher ambient temperature by curve fitting. It is indicated that the temperature gradient on battery surface will increase with charging rate increase, and the rate of actual temperature rise is almost unrelated to ambient temperature. The simulating result shows that the maximum surface temperature would be over 101 °C if the battery is charged in the rate of 5C under an ambient temperature of 70 °C, which may lead to a safe accident.
Authors:Xin Li, Anbang Chen, Yangzhi Zhou, Lingling Huang, Zheng Fang, Haifeng Gan, and Kai Guo
Continuous-flow synthesis of coumarin was realized in a tandem microflow system containing two microreactors in this study. Generally, better reaction yield (91%) and less side reaction were obtained in the flow system compared with conventional method. Interestingly, different reaction pathways were observed between continuous-flow system and batch methods.
Six lanthanide compounds [Ln(H2O)9](m-BDTH)3·9(H2O) where Ln = La (1), and [Ln(H2O)8](m-BDTH)3·9(H2O) (m-BDTH2 = 1,3-benzeneditetrazol-5-yl) where Ln = Lu (2), Yb (3), Er (4), Ho (5) and Y (6) were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and X-ray single crystal diffraction. PXRD indicates that 2–6 are isomorphous. Structural analyses reveal that 1 is coordinated by nine water molecules forming a capped-square antiprism, while 2–6 are coordinated by eight water molecules forming a simple square antiprismatic geometry. Effects of water molecules on thermal stability were also discussed by thermogravimetric (TG), DSC, and PXRD under different temperatures. TG analyses suggest that 1 loses lattice and coordinated water molecules with no diacritical boundary, and 6 removes lattice water molecules first and then coordinated water molecules. DSC and PXRD further confirm the consequence.
Authors:Lin-Quan Liao, Hong-Jian Wei, Ji-Zhen Li, Xue-Zhong Fan, Ya Zheng, Yue-Ping Ji, Xiao-Long Fu, Ya-Jun Zhang, and Fang-Li Liu
The compatibility of poly(3-nitromethyl-3-methyloxetane) (PNIMMO) with some energetic materials are studied by using pressure DSC method in detail. Cyclotetramethylenetetranitroamine (HMX), cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), nitrocellulose (NC), nitroglycerine (NG), N-nitrodihydroxyethylaminedinitrate (DINA), and aluminum powder (Al) are used as common energetic materials, and 3,4-dinitrofurzanfuroxan (DNTF), 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), hexanitrohexazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), 4,6-dinitro-5,7-diaminobenzenfuroxan (CL-14), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (DADNE), and 4-amino-5-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (ANTZ) are used as new energetic materials. The results show that the binary systems of PNIMMO with HMX, RDX, NC, NG, DINA, Al, CL-14 and DADNE are compatible, with TNAZ, CL-20 and ANTZ are slightly sensitive, and with DNTF is sensitive.