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Abstract  

A study on solvent extraction of cerium/III/ ion with 1-/2-pyridylazo/-2-naphthol /PAN or HL/ in chloroform from perchloric acid solution is described. The effect of equilibrium time, the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration centration of extractant in organic phase on the extraction efficiency of cerium/III/ has been studied. The results show that the mechanism of extraction reaction is 3Ce /aq/ 3+ + 3HL/o/ CeL3/o/ + 3H + /aq/

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Abstract

In this work, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been prepared from water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion, using monocaprate as solid lipid, sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) as emulsifier, and puerarin as target drug. The morphology of SLN with drug loaded or not was investigated by the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystal order and structure of particles were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The results indicate that the diameters of SLN with puerarin inside are larger than those without drugs. The analysis of WAXD and DSC shows that the state of crystallinity SLN prepared by double emulsion method was worse than that of SLN prepared by microemulsion. And also the drug-loaded SLN presents a less ordered crystallinity than the drug-free SLN. But both the drug-free and drug-loaded SLN exist in an amorphous state. The reasons of the phenomenon have been discussed.

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Abstract

The proportion of pathogenic microorganisms in the microbial world is relatively small, while their threat to human health, economic development and social stability is severe. The quantity and variation of Science Citation Index (SCI) literature related to pathogenic microorganisms may reflect the level of relevant research and the degree of attention. Here we compared trends in the quantity and variety of SCI literature relating to certain important pathogenic microorganisms published by scientists from United States and China from 1996 to 2010 by searching the Science Citation Index database. The pathogenic microorganisms in this study comprise two categories of pathogens: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Ebola virus, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which belong to biodefense-associated pathogens (BDAPs) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), SARS coronavirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza virus, which belong to the commonly encountered health-threatening pathogens. Our results showed that the United States (US) published much more SCI literature on these pathogens than China. Furthermore, literature on BDAPs published by scientists from the US has increased sharply since 2002. However, the numbers of literature relating to CEHTPs from China has demonstrated a gradual increase from 1996 to 2010. Research into pathogenic microorganisms requires three balance to be achieved: investment in BDAP and CEHTP studies; basic and applied research; a faster pace of research into pathogens and fulfilling biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of the reduction of plutonium(IV) by hydroxyurea (HU), a novel salt free reductant, in nitric acid solutions has been studied. The observed reaction rate can be expressed as: -d[Pu(IV)]/dt=k 0[Pu(IV)]2[HU]/[H+]0.9, where k 0 = 5853±363 (l1.1.mol-1.1.s-1) at t = 13 °C. The activation energy is about 81.2 kJ/mol. The study also shows that uranium(VI) has no appreciable influence on the reaction rate. Compared with other organic reductants our experiments indicate that HU is a very fast reductant for plutonium(IV).

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Abstract

Calycanthine is an important class of alkaloids extracted and isolated from the roots, leaves, flowers and fruits of Chimonanthus praecox. In this work, the UPLC-MS/MS method was used for determination of calycanthine in rat plasma, and the pharmacokinetics in rats were investigated. Midazolam was used as an internal standard (IS), and methanol precipitation method was used to pretreatment the rat plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column with the mobile phase of methanol- 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution with gradient elution. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied for quantitative analysis, m/z 347.3 → 246.7 and 326.2 → 291.4 for calycanthine and IS, respectively. The results indicated that within the range of 1–200 ng/mL, linearity of calycanthine in rat plasma was good (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. Accuracy range was between 90.6 and 109.4%, precision (RSD) of calycanthine was less than 14%. The matrix effect was between 97.9% and 105.4%, the recovery was better than 85.6%. The developed UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of calycanthine in rats after oral and intravenous administration. The absolute bioavailability of the calycanthine was 37.5% in rats.

Open access
Scientometrics
Authors:
Jun Yuan
,
Wei Yue
,
Cheng Su
,
Zheng Wu
,
Zheng Ma
,
Yun Pan
,
Nan Ma
,
Zhi Hu
,
Fei Shi
,
Zheng Yu
, and
Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Abstract  

The influence of the concentration of nitric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, petroleum sulfoxides (PSO), salting-out agent, kind of diluent and temperature on the distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) has been systematically studied. It is found that the extraction regularity of PSO is similar to that of TBP. The distribution ratio in phosphoric acid is lower, but it increases with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration and reaches a high value. The U(VI) exhibits the maximum distribution ratio at 3–4 mol/l HNO3. The distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) increases rapidly in the presence of a salting out agent. The extracted compounds are determined to be UO2(NO3)22PSO and Th(NO3)42PSO. The extraction enthalpies of U(VI) and Th(IV) with PSO were also calculated.

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Abstract

In this study, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to measure the concentrations of the flavonoids oroxin A, oroxin B, oroxylin A, oroxyloside, chrysin, chrysin 7-O-beta-gentiobioside, and guaijaverin in the blank mouse blood, and the method was then used in the measurement of the pharmacokinetics of the compounds in mice. Oroxin A, oroxin B, oroxylin A, oroxyloside, chrysin, chrysin 7-O-beta-gentiobioside, and guaijaverin were administered intravenously at a dose of 5 mg kg−1, and the mouse blood (20 μL) was withdrawn from the caudal vein 0.08333, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after administration. The mobile phase used for chromatographic separation by gradient elution was composed of acetonitrile and water (0.1% formic acid). The analytes were detected by operating in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive-ion mode using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from 86.2 to 109.3%, the intra-day precision was less than 14%, and the inter-day precision was less than 15%. The matrix effect ranged from 85.3 to 111.3%, and the recovery of the analytes after protein precipitation were all above 78.2%. This method had the advantages of high sensitivity, accuracy, and recovery, and it had excellent selectivity, which enabled it to be applied to measuring the pharmacokinetics of the analytes in mice.

Open access
Acta Chromatographica
Authors:
Shanjiang Chen
,
Miaoling Huang
,
Zheng Yu
,
Jiamin He
,
Binge Huang
,
Xianqin Wang
,
Jianshe Ma
, and
Congcong Wen

8-O-Acetylharpagide is the main active component of the herb Ajuga decumbens, which possesses anti-tumor, anti-virus, and anti-inflammation properties. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) was used to measure the concentration of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood, with subsequent investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the drug after intravenous or oral administration. Shanzhiside methyl ester was used as an internal standard, and the acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the blood samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography ethylene-bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient methanol–water mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid). The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min, and the elution time was 5.0 min. 8-O-Acetylharpagide was quantitatively measured using electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization. The result indicated that, within the range of 5–500 ng/mL, the linearity of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood was satisfactory (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL. Intra-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8-O-acetylharpagide in blood was lower than 9%, and the inter-day precision RSD was lower than 13%. The accuracy range was between 94.3% and 107.1%, average recovery was higher than 91.3%, and the matrix effect was between 100.8% and 110.8%. This analytical method was sensitive and fast with good selectivity and was successfully applied to perform pharmacokinetic studies of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mice. The bioavailability of 8-O-acetylharpagide was 10.8%, and the analysis of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters after oral and intravenous administration indicated that 8-O-acetylharpagide had a significant first pass effect after oral administration.

Open access

Abstract

Tectorigenin, tectoridin, irigenin, and iridin are the four most predominant compounds present in She Gan. She Gan has been used in traditional Chinese medicine because of its anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, antioxidant, phytoestrogen-like properties. In this paper, a UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to measure the pharmacokinetics of tectorigenin, tectoridin, irigenin, iridin after intravenous administration in mice. A UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) chromatographic column was utilized for separation of the four target analytes and internal standard (IS), and the analysis of blood plasma samples; the mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-water (w/0.1% formic acid) gradient elution. Electron spray ionization (ESI) positive-ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative analysis of the analytes and internal standard. The four compounds were administered intravenously (sublingual) at doses of 5 mg/kg. After blood sampling, samples were processed and then analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The linearity of the method was robust over the concentration range of 2–5,000 ng/mL. The intra-day precision of the analysis was within 15%, the inter-day precision was within 12%, and the accuracy was between 92% and 110%. The recoveries were 65–68%, and the matrix effect was 93–109%. The established UPLC-MS/MS detection method was then successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of tectorigenin, tectoridin, irigenin, iridin in mice.

Open access