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  • Author or Editor: Zheng Yu x
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Abstract  

A study on solvent extraction of cerium/III/ ion with 1-/2-pyridylazo/-2-naphthol /PAN or HL/ in chloroform from perchloric acid solution is described. The effect of equilibrium time, the pH of the aqueous phase and the concentration centration of extractant in organic phase on the extraction efficiency of cerium/III/ has been studied. The results show that the mechanism of extraction reaction is 3Ce /aq/ 3+ + 3HL/o/ CeL3/o/ + 3H + /aq/

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Abstract

In this work, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been prepared from water-in-oil-in-water double emulsion, using monocaprate as solid lipid, sorbitan monooleate (Span 80) and polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20) as emulsifier, and puerarin as target drug. The morphology of SLN with drug loaded or not was investigated by the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystal order and structure of particles were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), respectively. The results indicate that the diameters of SLN with puerarin inside are larger than those without drugs. The analysis of WAXD and DSC shows that the state of crystallinity SLN prepared by double emulsion method was worse than that of SLN prepared by microemulsion. And also the drug-loaded SLN presents a less ordered crystallinity than the drug-free SLN. But both the drug-free and drug-loaded SLN exist in an amorphous state. The reasons of the phenomenon have been discussed.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of the reduction of plutonium(IV) by hydroxyurea (HU), a novel salt free reductant, in nitric acid solutions has been studied. The observed reaction rate can be expressed as: -d[Pu(IV)]/dt=k 0[Pu(IV)]2[HU]/[H+]0.9, where k 0 = 5853±363 (l1.1.mol-1.1.s-1) at t = 13 °C. The activation energy is about 81.2 kJ/mol. The study also shows that uranium(VI) has no appreciable influence on the reaction rate. Compared with other organic reductants our experiments indicate that HU is a very fast reductant for plutonium(IV).

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Abstract

The proportion of pathogenic microorganisms in the microbial world is relatively small, while their threat to human health, economic development and social stability is severe. The quantity and variation of Science Citation Index (SCI) literature related to pathogenic microorganisms may reflect the level of relevant research and the degree of attention. Here we compared trends in the quantity and variety of SCI literature relating to certain important pathogenic microorganisms published by scientists from United States and China from 1996 to 2010 by searching the Science Citation Index database. The pathogenic microorganisms in this study comprise two categories of pathogens: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Ebola virus, Burkholderia pseudomallei, which belong to biodefense-associated pathogens (BDAPs) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), SARS coronavirus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, influenza virus, which belong to the commonly encountered health-threatening pathogens. Our results showed that the United States (US) published much more SCI literature on these pathogens than China. Furthermore, literature on BDAPs published by scientists from the US has increased sharply since 2002. However, the numbers of literature relating to CEHTPs from China has demonstrated a gradual increase from 1996 to 2010. Research into pathogenic microorganisms requires three balance to be achieved: investment in BDAP and CEHTP studies; basic and applied research; a faster pace of research into pathogens and fulfilling biosafety and biosecurity requirements.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu

Abstract  

This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined. Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed. It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees, both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.

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Xinjiang rice wheat ( Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migush, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) is one of the endemic Chinese wheats, only distributing in Xinjiang and Xizang (Tibet), China. A novel high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunit gene 1Dx2.1 was isolated and characterized from Xinjiang rice wheat accession Daomai2. The complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1Dx2.1 is 2508 bp, encoding 836 amino acids. The primary structure of 1Dx2.1 consists of three distinct domains, a non-repetitive N-terminal domain with 89 residues, a non-repetitive C-terminal domain with 42 residues and a large central repetitive domain with 684 residues. In the N-terminal of 1Dx2.1, there is an R (arginine) at position 75, whereas there is a Q (glutamine) in other known x-type subunits. Four cysteine residues are observed in 1Dx2.1 with three in the N-terminal region and one in the C-terminal region. The number and distribution of cysteines in 1Dx2.1 are identical to those in x-type subunits except for 1Dx5, which possesses an extra cysteine residue. Differences between the repetitive domain of 1Dx2.1 and those of known HMW subunits resulted from substitutions, insertions or/and deletions involving single or more amino acid residues. The phylogenetic tree, which was constructed on the basis of amino acid sequences, and indicated that 1Dx2.1 was highly related to 1Dx2.1 t , then to 1Dx2 and 1Dx5.

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Abstract  

The influence of the concentration of nitric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, petroleum sulfoxides (PSO), salting-out agent, kind of diluent and temperature on the distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) has been systematically studied. It is found that the extraction regularity of PSO is similar to that of TBP. The distribution ratio in phosphoric acid is lower, but it increases with the increase of hydrochloric acid concentration and reaches a high value. The U(VI) exhibits the maximum distribution ratio at 3–4 mol/l HNO3. The distribution ratio of U(VI) and Th(IV) increases rapidly in the presence of a salting out agent. The extracted compounds are determined to be UO2(NO3)22PSO and Th(NO3)42PSO. The extraction enthalpies of U(VI) and Th(IV) with PSO were also calculated.

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Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis
Authors: Lixia Wang, Wanchun Zhu, Dafang Zheng, Xue Yu, Jing Cui, Mingjun Jia, Wenxiang Zhang, and Zhenlu Wang

Abstract  

The reaction of direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate was investigated on reduced Cu/ZrO2 catalysts prepared by a co-precipitation procedure. The catalytic performances of these Cu–Zr mixed oxides were considerably influenced by changing the molar ratio of Cu to Zr. The highest selectivity to ethyl acetate was found over Cu/ZrO2(1) catalyst (molar ratio of Cu to Zr was 1). A variety of characterization techniques, such as N2 adsorption, XRD, XPS, TPR and NH3-TPD were carried out on the catalysts. The results revealed that the presence of a certain amount of Cu+ species may play very important role in improving the selectivity to ethyl acetate of the Cu/ZrO2 catalysts.

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In this paper, the wind energy resource in China’s oilfields is analyzed, the difference between China’s energy consumption structure and that of the world in average is analyzed as well, and the application prospect of wind heating technology in China’s oilfields is discussed as an example to reform China’s energy consumption structure. It shows that it is possible to use wind energy as an appropriate heat resource or supplementary heat source in some oilfields to supply heat energy for oil heating and living, more room to improve the energy resource utilization in various fields in China remain. It is a benefit to both oilfield and society to improve energy saving and environments.

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Acta Chromatographica
Authors: Shanjiang Chen, Miaoling Huang, Zheng Yu, Jiamin He, Binge Huang, Xianqin Wang, Jianshe Ma, and Congcong Wen

8-O-Acetylharpagide is the main active component of the herb Ajuga decumbens, which possesses anti-tumor, anti-virus, and anti-inflammation properties. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) was used to measure the concentration of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood, with subsequent investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the drug after intravenous or oral administration. Shanzhiside methyl ester was used as an internal standard, and the acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the blood samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography ethylene-bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient methanol–water mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid). The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min, and the elution time was 5.0 min. 8-O-Acetylharpagide was quantitatively measured using electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization. The result indicated that, within the range of 5–500 ng/mL, the linearity of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood was satisfactory (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL. Intra-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8-O-acetylharpagide in blood was lower than 9%, and the inter-day precision RSD was lower than 13%. The accuracy range was between 94.3% and 107.1%, average recovery was higher than 91.3%, and the matrix effect was between 100.8% and 110.8%. This analytical method was sensitive and fast with good selectivity and was successfully applied to perform pharmacokinetic studies of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mice. The bioavailability of 8-O-acetylharpagide was 10.8%, and the analysis of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters after oral and intravenous administration indicated that 8-O-acetylharpagide had a significant first pass effect after oral administration.

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