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  • Author or Editor: Zhong Cao x
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Abstract  

The purpose of this work was to indirect label IgG with fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ and to check the radiochemical behavior of the labeled product. The compound of (bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-amino)-acetic acid (L2H) was synthesized and labeled with fac-[188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+. The labeling yield of 188Re(CO)3–L2H was more than 90%. The effects of protein concentration, reaction time, pH and reaction temperature of labeling of IgG with 188Re(CO)3–L2H were investigated. The conjugation conditions were optimized. The labeled product was analyzed by size exclusion HPLC and TLC. The stability of 188Re(CO)3–L2H–IgG in vitro was high. The results of this study may be useful for [188Re(CO)3(H2O)3]+ labeling of protein for radioimmunotherapy.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Hou-yin Zhao, Yan Cao, Zhi-zhong Kang, Yau-bang Wang, and Wei-ping Pan

Abstract

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technology with the capability for segregation of exhaust products (i.e., carbon dioxide/H2O or N2/O2). The combustion is performed in two interconnected reactors with a solid oxygen carrier circulating between them, transferring oxygen from the air to the fuel. The feasibility of a successful CLC system depends on the selection of an appropriate oxygen carrier. Cu-based oxygen carriers are good oxygen carriers due to high reactivity. However, it faces low melting point, agglomeration problems in fluidized bed. In this study, a circular reduction–oxidation reaction simulated to the cyclic operation of the Cu-based oxygen carrier was conducted on the thermogravimetric analyzer (TG). The thermal behaviors of the potential Cu-based oxygen carrier were investigated by using an X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface analyzer. Multiple TG results show that the weight loss was 3.4%, indicating that the loading CuO amount was 17%. Moreover, the weight loss and weight gain was equal during 73 redox cycles, suggesting the good thermal stability of the oxygen carrier. The conversion rate of reduction and oxidation for each redox cycle remained constant even after 73 redox cycles. XRD results show the new phase formation of CuAl2O4 during redox cycles, which promotes the thermal stabilization of the oxygen carrier. The surface area of the oxygen carrier decreased from 105 to 13 m2 g−1 after 73 redox cycles and the particle size distribution shifted from 5–15 nm to 15–30 nm, suggesting that the micorpores were blocked or collapsed. However, the reactivity of the oxygen carrier didn't decrease. SEM results show that CuO was evenly distributed on the surface of Al2O3 after 73 redox cycles. Overall, these results suggested that the Cu-based oxygen carrier was ready for fluidized bed tests.

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Abstract

A three-dimensional lithium-based metal–organic framework Li2(2,6-NDC) (2,6-NDC = 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometer analysis (TG–MS). The framework has exceptional stability and is stable to 863 K. The thermal decomposition characteristic of this compound was investigated through the TG–MS from 293 to 1250 K. The molar heat capacity of the compound was measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 195 to 670 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy versus 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated.

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Abstract

A new potential enantioselective catalyst derived from ferrocene, 1-{(R)-1-[(S)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyl}-benzimidazole (DPFEB), was prepared and its absolute structure was characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. The molar heat capacity of DPFEB was measured by means of temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry over the temperature range of 200–530 K, and the thermodynamic functions of [H TH 298.15] and [S TS 298.15] were calculated. Further more, thermogravimetry experiment revealed that DPFEB exhibited a three step thermal decomposition process with the final residual of 28.7%.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Yi-Xi Zhou, Li-Xian Sun, Zhong Cao, Jian Zhang, Fen Xu, Li-Fang Song, Zi-Ming Zhao, and Yong-Jin Zou

Abstract

Two metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF [M = Ni (for 1) and Co (for 2); H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (1,3,5-BTC); 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine; DMF = N,N′-dimethylformamide] were synthesized by a one-pot solution reaction and a solvothermal method, respectively, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition mechanism of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The experimental results through TGA measurement demonstrate that both of the two compounds have a three-stage mass loss in air flow.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: F. Xu, L. Sun, P. Chen, Y. Qi, J. Zhang, J. Zhao, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, Zhong Cao, D. Yang, J. Zeng, and Y. Du

Abstract  

The heat capacities of LiNH2 and Li2MgN2H2 were measured by a modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) over the temperature range from 223 to 473 K for the first time. The value of heat capacity of LiNH2 is bigger than that of Li2MgN2H2 from 223 to 473 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (HH 298.15) and entropy (SS 298.15) versus 298.15 K were calculated based on the above heat capacities. The thermal stabilities of them were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) at a heating rate of 10 K min−1 with Ar gas flow rate of 30 mL min−1 from room temperature to 1,080 K. TG curves showed that the thermal decomposition of them occurred in two stages. The order of thermal stability of them is: Li2MgN2H2 > LiNH2. The results indicate that addition of Mg increases the thermal stability of Li–N–H system and decrease the value of heat capacities of Li–N–H system.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Li-Fang Song, Chun-Hong Jiang, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Yun-Qi Tian, Wan-Sheng You, Zhong Cao, Ling Zhang, and Dao-Wu Yang

Abstract  

A novel two-dimensional metal organic framework MgBTC [MgBTC(OCN)2·2H2O, where BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate] has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MgBTC were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 190 to 350 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters of MgBTC such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacities data. Moreover, the thermal stability and decomposition of MgBTC was further investigated through thermogravimetry (TG)-mass spectrometer (MS). Four stages of mass loss were observed in the TG curve. TG-MS curve indicated that the products of oxidative degradation of MgBTC are H2O, N2, CO2 and CO. The powder XRD showed that the mixture after TG contains MgO and graphite.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Ju-Lan Zeng, Sai-Bo Yu, Bo Tong, Li-Xian Sun, Zhi-Cheng Tan, Zhong Cao, Dao-Wu Yang, and Jing-Nan Zhang

Abstract

An N-tert-butyloxycarbonylated organic synthesis intermediate, (S)-tert-butyl 1-phenylethylcarbamate, was prepared and investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The molar heat capacities of (S)-tert-butyl 1-phenylethylcarbamate were precisely determined by means of adiabatic calorimetry over the temperature range of 80-380 K. There was a solid–liquid phase transition exhibited during the heating process with the melting point of 359.53 K. The molar enthalpy and entropy of this transition were determined to be 29.73 kJ mol−1 and 82.68 J K−1 mol−1 based on the experimental C pT curve, respectively. The thermodynamic functions, [ ] and [ ], were calculated from the heat capacity data in the temperature range of 80–380 K with an interval of 5 K. TG experiment showed that the pyrolysis of the compound was started at the temperature of 385 K and terminated at 510 K within one step.

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Abstract

Two sensitive and effective methods were developed for the detection of catecholamines and related biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, levodopa and tyramine) using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. A BODIPY fluorescent dye, 1, 3, 5, 7-tetramethyl-8-(N-hydroxysuccinimidyl propionic ester)-difluoroboradiaza- s-indacene was used as pre-column derivatization reagent. The separation and derivatization conditions were optimized in detail. In high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method, the derivatization reaction was completed at 35 °C for 20 min. At the wavelength of λex/λem = 493 nm/513 nm, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and levodopa derivatives achieved baseline separation within 15 min. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 0.5 nmol/L, respectively. In capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection method, the derivatization reaction was completed at 25 °C for 20 min. Serotonin, tyramine and dopamine derivatives reached baseline separation within 10 min at the wavelength of λex = 473 nm. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for serotonin, tyramine, and dopamine were 0.3, 0.02, and 0.2 nmol/L, respectively. The amino compounds in human serum and urine samples were detected successfully, and the recoveries were 93.3%–106.7% and 91.0%–103.1%, respectively.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Haoran Meng, Hongjian Cao, Ruining Hao, Nan Zhou, Yue Liang, Lulu Wu, Lianjiang Jiang, Rongzi Ma, Beilei Li, Linyuan Deng, Zhong Lin, Xiuyun Lin, and Jintao Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Previous studies on smartphone use motivation (SUM) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) have been limited in the utilization of regional samples of emerging adults (e.g., college students) and also in the foci on the direct association between SUM and PSU. To address such gaps, using data from a large, national representative sample of Chinese young adolescents and their parents this study examined the associations between adolescents' various types of SUM and their PSU, and also tested the potential mediating roles of smartphone use time (SUT) that adolescents spent on various activities in such associations.

Methods

A nationwide representative sample of 8,261 Chinese adolescents (M age = 12.86 years old, SD = 1.76; 42.6% females) and their parents (49% mothers) participated in this survey study.

Results

Instrumental SUM (i.e., to expand knowledge or acquire information) was associated negatively with PSU via longer SUT spent on learning and shorter SUT spent on entertainment and communication. Self-expression SUM (i.e., to gain acceptance and recognition of others by maintaining or improving self-images) was associated with longer SUT spent on both learning and entertainment, which, in turn, predicted lower and higher levels of PSU, respectively. Last, hedonic SUM (i.e., to gain pleasure) was associated positively with PSU via longer SUT spent on entertainment and communication.

Discussion

These findings contribute to the literature by adding greater specificity in our understanding of the implications of SUM and SUT in the etiology of PSU during the critical life stage of adolescence in a Chinese cultural context.

Open access