This paper discusses the use of game theory in thinking about and the practice of interpreting, especially in the often impossible context of simultaneous interpreting (SI). By introducing game theory together with the basic concepts and accompanying reasoning, the author intends to explore and present a manageable and rationalised way of preparing and undertaking a difficult SI assignment. So, in the development of his ideas, partly through telling a Chinese legend and partly through presenting a case study of a real life SI assignment, he will make the following points. First, the interpreter must have a good knowledge of his/her own strengths and of the nature and difficulty of assignment and must undertake research to enhance that knowledge. Secondly, on the basis of this knowledge, he/she must set an optimal and realistic objective for the assignment. Thirdly, through research, he/she must design strategies to achieve the selected objectives and, at the same time, through research, he/she must assess the costs and risks and then design specific strategies to contain/reduce the costs and manage/minimize the risks in order to optimise the results of the assignment. Last but not least, he/she must evaluate the game plan designed for the job to facilitate future game planning. In the spirit of game theory, SI becomes a very brainy, intellectual activity and is no longer a process of mechanic reproduction, pedantic compilation of glossary and an unmanageable chancy behaviour.
As a sequel to my paper The Second Best Thing
(2005) on use of game theory in simultaneous interpreting, this paper reviews
application of economics concepts and terms, which can enable and facilitate
game theory in discussions and instructions of translation. I will begin with a
list of the concepts and terms with their general definitions provided,
including opportunity cost, cost, cost management, risk, attitude to risk and
game theory. Next, I will reconstruct a real-life simultaneous interpreting
assignment, which is meant to serve as an experimental context for the
application of the said concepts and terms. I will then proceed to demonstrate
how the concepts and terms mentioned can be applied to the discussion and
operation of the assignment. There will be a passing listing of other concepts
and terms, including research, profiling, envisaging, investment, return,
options, probability, credit and accountability, which I reckon are also
important for articulating and teaching translation. The paper will also state
the purposes of importing these economics concepts and terms, which were to
establish an alternative, rationalized discourse of translation not constrained
by conventional terms such as equivalence, accuracy and adequacy.
Dubbing is the norm in re-editing imported foreign screen programming in China. Yet the practice has been rarely critiqued. In this context, I have undertaken a stylistic analysis of a dubbed Chinese edition of
, which was screened by China Central Television (CCTV) soon after its US release. This paper discusses the analysis and the ensuing findings. The paper presents a number of examples extracted from the original script, accompanied by the CCTV translation plus back translation of the program. I begin the paper by providing information about the CCTV edition of
, focusing on its poor reception by the viewers. This is followed by a discussion of the four prominent translation strategies used in the CCTV rendition, which I have identified on the basis of the stylistic analysis. The strategies include being maximal, being literal, being logical and being sanitary. I then proceed to a critique of the four strategies. I argue that the use of the strategies is intended to serve two specific objectives. (1) Accomplishing the difficult task of translating the program from English into Chinese and from American culture into Chinese culture. (2) Taming the desperate language acts of the characters. It will be argued, however, that the use of the strategies prevents the foreign (i.e., articulation of the desperation of suburban American housewives) from coming through to the Chinese audience, which I believe contributes to the viewers’ disenchantment with the program.
Authors:Bao Agula, Qing-Fang Deng, Mei-Lin Jia, Yuping Liu, Bao Zhaorigetu and Zhong-Yong Yuan
Mesoporous Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 oxides were prepared by a surfactant-assisted method of nanocrystalline particle assembly, and used as a support of nickel oxide nanocatalysts. The obtained mesoporous NiO/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, TEM, H2-TPR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The catalytic properties of the NiO/Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 nanocatalysts were evaluated by CO oxidation and toluene combustion. The results showed that the catalyst with 10 wt% NiO loading exhibited the highest catalytic activity for CO oxidation and toluene combustion.
Authors:Chun-Hong Jiang, Li-Fang Song, Cheng-Li Jiao, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Yong Du and Zhong Cao
A three-dimensional lithium-based metal–organic framework Li2(2,6-NDC) (2,6-NDC = 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylate) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometer analysis (TG–MS). The framework has exceptional stability and is stable to 863 K. The thermal decomposition characteristic of this compound was investigated through the TG–MS from 293 to 1250 K. The molar heat capacity of the compound was measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 195 to 670 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy versus 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated.
Authors:Yi-Xi Zhou, Li-Xian Sun, Zhong Cao, Jian Zhang, Fen Xu, Li-Fang Song, Zi-Ming Zhao and Yong-Jin Zou
Two metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF [M = Ni (for 1) and Co (for 2); H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (1,3,5-BTC); 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine; DMF = N,N′-dimethylformamide] were synthesized by a one-pot solution reaction and a solvothermal method, respectively, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition mechanism of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The experimental results through TGA measurement demonstrate that both of the two compounds have a three-stage mass loss in air flow.
Authors:Li-Fang Song, Cheng-Li Jiao, Chun-Hong Jiang, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Qing-Zhu Jiao, Yong-Heng Xing, F. L. Huang, Yong Du, Zhong Cao, Fen Li and Jijun Zhao
One-three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks Mg1.5(C12H6O4)1.5(C3H7NO)2 (MgNDC) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD, powder XRD, FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MgNDC were measured by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) over the temperature range from 205 to 470 K for the first time. No phase transition or thermal anomaly was observed in the experimental temperature range. The thermodynamic parameters of MgNDC such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacities data. Moreover, the thermal stability and decomposition of MgNDC was further investigated through thermogravimetry (TG)–mass spectrometer (MS). Three stages of mass loss were observed in the TG curve. TG–MS curve indicated that the oxidative degradation products of MgNDC are mainly H2O, CO2, NO, and NO2.
Authors:Chun-Hong Jiang, Li-Fang Song, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Fen Li, Qing-Zhu Jiao, Zhen-Gang Sun, Yong-Heng Xing, Yong Du, Ju-Lan Zeng and Zhong Cao
A novel metal organic framework [Co (BTC)1/3 (DMF) (HCOO)]n (CoMOF, BTC = 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylate, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) has been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, and FT-IR spectra. The molar heat capacity of the compound was measured by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) over the temperature range from 198 to 418 K for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy versus 298.15 K based on the above molar heat capacity were calculated. Moreover, a four-step sequential thermal decomposition mechanism for the CoMOF was investigated through the thermogravimetry and mass spectrometer analysis (TG-DTG-MS) from 300 to 800 K. The apparent activation energy of the first decomposition step of the compound was calculated by the Kissinger method using experimental data of TG analysis.
Authors:Li-Fang Song, Chun-Hong Jiang, Cheng-Li Jiao, Jian Zhang, Li-Xian Sun, Fen Xu, Qing-Zhu Jiao, Yong-Heng Xing, Yong Du, Zhong Cao and Feng-Lei Huang
A metal-organic framework [Mn(4,4′-bipy)(1,3-BDC)]n (MnMOF, 1,3-BDC = 1,3-benzene dicarboxylate, 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine) has been synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by single crystal XRD and FT-IR spectrum. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of MnMOF were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition mechanism of MnMOF were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis-mass spectrometer. A two-stage mass loss was observed in air flow. MS curves indicated that the gas products of oxidative degradation were H2O, CO2, NO, and NO2.