What is learned in perceptual learning? How does perceptual learning change the perceptual system? We investigate these questions using a systems analysis of the perceptual system during the course of perceptual learning using psychophysical methods and models of the observer. Effects of perceptual learning on an observer's performance are characterized by external noise tests within the framework of noisy observer models. We find evidence that two independent mechanisms, external noise exclusion and stimulus enhancement support perceptual learning across a range of tasks. We suggest that both mechanisms may reflect re-weighting of stable early sensory representations.
Perceptual learning is the improvement in perceptual task performance with practice or training. The observation of specificity in perceptual learning has been widely associated with plasticity in early visual cortex representations. Here, we review the evidence supporting the plastic reweighting of readout from stable sensory representations, originally proposed by Dosher and Lu (1998), as an alternative explanation of perceptual learning. A task-analysis that identifies circumstances in which specificity supports representation enhancement and those in which it implies reweighting provides a framework for evaluating the literature; reweighting is broadly consistent with the behavioral results and almost all of the physiological reports. We also consider the evidence that the primary mode of perceptual learning is through augmented Hebbian learning of the reweighted associations, which has implications for the role and importance of feedback. Feedback is not necessary for perceptual learning, but can improve it in some circumstances, and in some cases block feedback is also helpful — all effects that are generally compatible with an augmented Hebbian model (Petrov, Dosher and Lu, 2005). The two principles of perceptual learning through reweighting evidence from stable sensory representations and of augmented Hebbian learning provide a theoretical structure for the consideration of issues such as task difficulty, task roving, and cuing in perceptual learning.
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established to determine the hapepunine in mouse blood, and the pharmacokinetics of hapepunine after intravenous (1.0 mg/kg) and intragastric (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) administrations was studied. Delavinone was used as an internal standard. The UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18 column was used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid with a gradient elution flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative analysis of hapepunine in electrospray ionization (ESI) positive interface. Proteins from mouse blood were removed by acetonitrile precipitation. The verification method was established in accordance with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) bioanalytical method validation guidelines. In the concentration range of 1–1000 ng/mL, the hapepunine in the mouse blood was linear (r2 > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/mL. In the mouse blood, the intra-day precision coefficient of variation (CV) was less than 12%, the inter-day precision CV was less than 14%. The accuracy ranged from 91.7% to 109.3%. The average recovery was higher than 76.7%, and the matrix effect was between 86.0% and 106.4%. The UPLC–MS/MS method was sensitive, rapid, and selective and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of hapepunine in mice. The absolute bioavailability of hapepunine was 22.0%.