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Abstract

In the first part of this study, I will take into consideration the possible relationships between the anthropologist and the subjects being researched with regards to the terms informant, friendship and cooperation, focusing on the possible connections between them and their impacts. It seems obvious that the relationship between the anthropologist and locals can only function if mutual trust develops in an atmosphere that enables research subjects to reveal themselves and the researcher to collect information effectively. It would seem that the prerequisite for this on the part of the researcher is friendliness, but this gives rise to the question of whether friendliness and positive relations are the only elements necessary for the research to be successful. In other words, is it possible to imagine that fieldwork can sometimes benefit from a lack of friendly behaviour? Is it plausible that occasional conflict between the anthropologist and locals or local individuals may facilitate effective research and assimilation? Using an event from my own fieldwork, I will attempt to show how conflict in a given situation can be decidedly constructive to the researcher and how in certain cases unplanned and spontaneous contact that crosses the line of self-censorship toward deliberate confrontation can be significant with regards to the success of the research.

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“Flying half a metre above the ground”

Vodka in the culture of Vasyugan Khanty people

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Zoltán Nagy

Zoltan Nagy’s paper about the Vasyugan Khanty people is based on empirical data from the 1990s. It interprets the culture of the Vasyugan Khanty as an alcohol culture — a culture in which vodka and the consumption of vodka permeates and determines daily life. The paper is a micro-focus analysis from the Khanty viewpoint. Alcohol is interpreted as the force that constitutes society, and alcohol consumption as a social act. It has an important economic significance with a strong impact on Khanty customs, which it regulates and by which it is regulated, with remarkable moral implications that significantly influence their daily routines and way of life. The paper surveys the role of alcohol in customs, the ritualistic elements and rules of drinking, the drink types consumed, the relation between alcohol and mortality, as well as the Khanty’s concept of drunkenness and how it influences their interpretation of crime. In reviewing the relation between alcohol consumption and economy/work activities, the author also examines the role of vodka in the everyday exchange of goods, the strategies of acquiring alcohol, and the role it plays in determining the scheduling of worktime. Finally, he offers two examples that illustrate how the consumption of vodka influences the fate of individual families.

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Abstract  

The essay rejects the idea that 'collective identity' and 'cultural identity' are necessarily the same. Its aim is to preserve the usefulness of the former notion, by introducing 'the integrative circle of collective identity' as a terminological toolbox. This diagrammatic formula may help us find a common terminological language with which to handle the multitude of concrete variations on the theme of the collective in literary works. The second half of the paper demonstrates the theory in E. L. Doctorow's World's Fair and Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony by focusing on their representation of ceremony and ritual. Although the textual analysis cannot take up all the implications of the model, it hopes to propose a new and fruitful form of analysis.

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Abstract  

The essay engages only narratorial strategies that are manifestations of essential features of the minimalist narrative in contemporary American fiction. Minimalism reduces text-level agency through narratorial functional disorders (devices that block those functions) and limits them further, even effaces them completely, in figural narratives whose focalizer is an inarticulate character. The consequential psyche (if the narrator is of this type) and phenomenological presentation together can result in almost complete information blackout in some works by Joy Williams, Jay McInerney, or Bret Easton Ellis.

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Abstract  

The essay constructs minimalism in contemporary American fiction as both an extension of postmodernism and a revolt against it, a new development. It means that minimalism is a response to the same (i.e., postmodernist) view of the world, but the same philosophical conclusions regarding the postmodern nature of the world result in a radically different ars poetica. In the minimalist writer’s aesthetic decisions, the postmodernist habit is the real generative factor – it is the hidden ideological core of the postmodernist worldview that plays the really decisive role in the postmodernist-convictions-and-minimalist-aesthetic- program dynamic.

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Magyar Sebészet
Authors: Attila Nagy and Zoltán Jánó

Absztrakt

A parastomalis sérvek gyakorisága 35–50%. A rekonstrukciójukra használt módszerek (helyben hagyott stoma körüli hasfal-rekonstrukció, stomaáthelyezés és sérvkapuzárás, különböző módszerrel beültetett különböző típusú hálók) sem hoztak kielégítő eredményeket.

Az endoscopos módszerek elkerülik a stoma körüli metszést, csökkentik a háló felülfertőződésének veszélyét. A sok próbálkozás ellenére a rekonstrukciók után az újabb recidívaarány még mindig 12–35% között maradt.

A nem kielégítő eredmények alapján egyre erőteljesebben vetődik fel a stomakészítéssel egy időben beültetett hálók használata. Szerzők saját speciális, kétrétegű, hengeres összekötőelemmel kiegészített preventív hálóbeültetéssel képzett 17 stoma 5 éves utánvizsgálata során egyetlen parastomalis sérvet sem észleltek, összes szövődményük egy könnyen korrigálható bőrszintű strictura volt. Tapasztalataik alapján megfontolandónak tartják a preventív hálóbeültetést a véglegesnek szánt stoma készítése során.

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Célkitűzés és módszer: A szerzők a Semmelweis Egyetem I. Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinikáján 1990. január 1. és 2006. december 31. között a terhesség 24. és 42. hete között befejeződött 48 794 terhesség adatait elemezték olyan számítógépes nyilvántartási rendszerük adataira támaszkodva, mely a szülészeti, genetikai és neonatológiai ellátás komplexitását tükrözi. Eredmények: A szülésszám az adott 17 évben folyamatosan emelkedett, 1990-ben 2299, míg 2006-ban 3861 szülést regisztráltak. A korai neonatalis mortalitás fokozatosan csökkent (1990-ben 22/1000 élveszületés, 2006-ban 6/1000 élveszületés). Ha nem vesszük figyelembe az 1000 g súly alatt meghalt, az intézeten kívül intrauterin elhalt és a malformatio miatti szülésindukciók következtében születetteket, a perinatalis mortalitás igen alacsony, az utóbbi 7 évben 6/1000 szülés alatti, 2004-ben 2,8/1000 szülés, 2005-ben és 2006-ban pedig 1,8–1,9/1000 szülés! A neonatalis és csecsemőkori mortalitás adataiban is jelentős csökkenés tapasztalható. A császármetszések száma a vizsgált időszakban fokozatosan emelkedett; gyakoriságuk 1990–1991-ben 15–20%, az utóbbi években pedig 35% körül mozog. A főbb javallatok között szerepel az előzetes császármetszés utáni állapot, a (fenyegető) magzati hypoxia/acidosis, fájásgyengeség/elhúzódó szülés, relatív téraránytalanság, többes terhesség, hipertónia/praeeclampsia/HELLP-szindróma, medencevégű fekvés. Következtetések: A progresszív betegellátás következtében a klinikán a szülések kb. ötödrésze koraszülés, valamint számos súlyos terhespatológiai eset fordult elő, ennek ellenére a perinatalis statisztikai mutatókban – az utóbbi 17 év adatait elemezve – kedvező változások mutatkoznak, jelezvén a szülészeti és neonatológiai ellátás folyamatos szakmai fejlődését.

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Summary  

The geodesic graph of Riemannian spaces all geodesics of which are orbits of 1-parameter isometry groups was constructed by J. Szenthe in 1976 and it became a basic tool for studying such spaces, called g.o.\ spaces. This infinitesimal structure corresponds to the reductive complement \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $\mathfrak m$ \end{document} in the case of naturally reductive spaces. The systematic study of Riemannian g.o. spaces was started by O. Kowalski and L.~Vanhecke in 1991, when they introduced the most important definitions, classified the low-dimensional examples and described the basic constructions of this theory. The aim of this paper is to investigate a connection theoretical analogue of the concept of the geodesic graph.

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Introduction, aim and methods: Authors report data from 48,794 deliveries at 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2006. Data were analyzed based on their computer database, showing the complexity of obstetrics, genetic counseling and neonatology. Results: For an easy survey, data are shown on detailed figures. In the last 17 years the delivery number is increasing, from 2,299 in 1990 to 3,861 in 2006. Early neonatal mortality rate is decreasing (22 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 compared with 6 in 2006). If we do not take those < or = 1,000 grams or intrauterine death outside the institute or induction of labour because of malformation, perinatal mortality is very low, below 6/1,000 deliveries in the last 7 years, 2.8 in 2004, 1.8–1.9 in 2005 and 2006. Neonatal and infant mortality is also decreasing. There is an increase in the frequency of caesarean sections, 15–20% in 1990–1991, and approximately 35% in the last years. Main indications are previous caesarean section, threatened fetal hypoxia, dystocia, cephalopelvic disproportion, twin pregnancy, hypertension/praeeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, breech presentation. Conclusions: Because of the progressive system in obstetrics care in Hungary, in this leading institute approximately one fifth of the deliveries are preterm, furthermore they also have numerous severe pathological cases, though there are favorable changes in perinatal statistics in the last 17 years, showing the continuous improvement in obstetrical and neonatological care.

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