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We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group. All together 104 analyses were performed. We measured mental skills using Pedagogical Analysis and Curriculum (PAC) test consisting of four parts being communication, self care, motor skills and socialization. The Gait Cycle Analysis consists of the time-series analysis, the analysis of part of the gait cycle and the measurement of joint angles in each plane. We found significant differences between before and after the therapy in the length of the gait cycle that became more stable in the sagital plane and concluded that our results proved that horse therapy may be successfully used as an additional therapy for children with autism, and it may be a form of rehabilitation in cases when other therapies are not successful.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Kiss, Sz. Kertész, C. Hodúr, G. Keszthelyi-Szabó, and Zs. László

Nowadays, the membrane filtration technique is a commonly used method for the separation of whey. The most significant limitation of membrane applications is fouling, which causes flux decline. During this work, regenerated cellulose membranes covered by TiO2-nanoparticles were investigated and applied to the separation of whey solution. Experiments were carried out in a dead-end ultrafiltration cell, and the changes in filtration parameters and the photocatalytic effects of the UV irradiated TiO2 modified membrane surface on the membrane fouling were examined. Our results showed that the water flux decreased with increasing TiO2 layer thickness, but the retention of turbidity and of COD increased. After separation, the membrane surface was cleaned by UV irradiation by means of photocatalytic oxidation. It was found that the original flux was recoverable, while the retention of the membrane decreased after cleaning.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Bodor, Cs. Benedek, T. Kaszab, J.-L. Zinia Zaukuu, I. Kertész, and Z. Kovacs

Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar, sap of plant parts, or the juicy material secreted by sucking insects living on trees. It is rich in nutritionally useful components, the occurrence of which highly depends on the botanical and geographical origin of honey. Our goal is to develop a new, rapid, and accurate combination of analytical methods for identification of botanical and geographical origin.

Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, and ash content), colour (L*a*b*), and antioxidant properties were determined in addition to correlative techniques, such as electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy. For the statistical evaluation ANOVA, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were applied.

Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in physicochemical properties, colour, and antioxidant capacity according to the botanical origin of honeys. Electronic tongue (ET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques were useful in the identification of the botanical and geographical origin, showing generally good accuracy.

The physicochemical parameters are important and can serve as reference methods, completing NIR and ET as target techniques, which are promising, but need further improvement for the determination of honey origin.

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The importance of the treatment of water and wastewater has been steadily increasing because of the ever greater demands to eliminate environmental pollution. Pressure-driven membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), have been widely used in water and wastewater treatment and are applied on an industrial scale worldwide. The aim of our paper is to introduce the results of our research team on this field. The main research area within the membrane separation was the reduction of resistances. The effect of ozonation, vibration and application of dolly particles were examined in our scientific works.

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Abstract  

The northwestern prevailing wind direction and episodic south-to-north trajectories connect Hungarian atmosphere to the west and middle European as well as Mediterranean and Scandinavian regions that were covered by the 21 sampling sites active in an international collaboration on air quality. Our present set of data collected in Debrecen during the past decade is added to their data for comparison and the outcome is presented in this paper.

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Summary  

Thirty-seven episodes of dust intrusion were observed between February 12, 1991 and August 31, 2000 in the Hungarian atmosphere and found to be of Saharan origin. They have been assigned to typical source areas in Northern Africa selected by systematic investigations related to the Mediterranean Basin. Elemental concentrations and regional signatures deduced from PIXE analysis, total suspended particle mass, and black carbon mass have been measured on dust samples collected in Debrecen, Hungary. These data combined with Aerosol Index data, and dust plume axes obtained from TOMS data from NASA satellites were used for assigning the most probable source areas of the dust transported to the sampling site. Our data and conclusions are in accordance with other published investigations on the predominant role of Saharan dust emission in building up the aerosol load of the global atmosphere.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Gy. Szerencsés, S. Beszédes, Zs. László, G. Veréb, D. Szalay, Zs. Hovorkáné Horváth, C. Hodúr, G. Rákhely, and Sz. Kertész

Abstract

In this study, statistical analysis was performed to investigate the influence of operational parameters based on experimental results. The research aimed to know whether a long-term discontinuous module vibration operation is possible without adversely affecting filtration efficiency. Polymer membranes were compared by surface characteristics with contact angle measurements and selected for further membrane filtration experiments for dairy wastewater treatment. The effect of the main operational parameters, membrane module vibration amplitude (A vibr.) and transmembrane pressure (TMP), was investigated using a vibratory shear enhanced processing (VSEP) module with ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes. Components of the permeates, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), were measured, and membrane rejections were calculated to compare with threshold limit values. The results suggest that proper combination of A vibr. and TMP could mitigate membrane fouling. However, discontinuous module vibration resulted in more clogged membrane with lower fluxes, but slightly higher rejections. We conclude that investigating the significance of operational parameters is necessary for a wider, more energy and environment-friendly application in wastewater treatment.

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