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  • Author or Editor: Zs. Basky x
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A survey of Pulsatilla grandis Wender revealed the presence of four aphid species colonizing Greater Pasque Flower in Hungary. Aphis pulsatillicola Holman, 1966 the monoecious Pulsatilla feeding aphid species is a new record for the Hungarian fauna. The development of Cavariella theobaldi Gilette Bragg, 1918 on the isolated silky seed head proves that the host alternating aphid species (primary hosts are Salix species and summer hosts are Umbelliferae plants) was able to develop from nymph to alatae on P. grandis. Winged forms develop in response to unsatisfactory quality of a host plant, while on suitable host apterae are produced. The polyphagous Aphis fabae Scopoli 1763 and Aphis gossypii Glover 1877 were able to overwinter and the progenies of fundatrices developed into wingless apterae on P. grandis.

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Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of four holocyclic Brachycaudus species. The monoecious B. lychnidis L. 1758 was the most frequently collected species. It colonised the perennial Silene alba (Mill.) E. H. L. Krause 1893 on the youngest highway section around Budapest (5 locations). The frequency of this species is due to frequent occurrence of its host plant on this section compared to other host species. New record for the Hungarian fauna is the occurrence of monoecious B. setosus Hille Ris Lambers 1948 on the biennial or perennial Tragopogon orientalis L. 1753 on two locations on the southern part of the country. The heteroecious B. cardui L. 1758 was found on biennial or perennial Senecio jacobaea L. 1753 in one location on north-western part of Hungary. On the north-eastern part of the country the perennial Symphytum officinale subsp. bohemicum (F. W. Schmidt) Čelak 1891 occurred on a damp area. The monoecious B. mordvilkoi Hille Ris Lambers 1931 colonised this Boraginaceae species.

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Uroleucon cichorii (Koch, 1855) Aphis intybii (Koch, 1855) and Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis Scopoli, 1763 colonies occurred on Cichorium intybus L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. was colonised by Aphis fabae cirsiiacanthoidis. Artemisia vulgaris L. accommodated Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841). The annual Crepis setosa Haller was the host plant of Uroleucon cirsii (Linnaeus, 1758) and Uroleucon cichorii. The perennial Picris hieracioides L. also accommodated Uroleucon cirsii. Centaurea arenaria M. Bieb. ex Willd. and Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek accommodated Uroleucon jaceae (Linnaeus, 1758). Carduus acanthoides L. was colonized by Uroleucon aeneum (Hille Ris Lambers, 1939). Artemisia absinthium L. was the host of Macrosiphoniella absinthii (Linnaeus, 1758). Achillea millefolium L. was colonized by Macrosiphoniella millefolii (De Geer, 1773).

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Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of the rare cruciferous feeding aphid species Smiela fusca forming small colony on horse radish (Armoracia rusticana). Smiela fusca is not only a new record for the Hungarian aphid fauna, but we found S. fusca colonizing a new host species, A. rusticana.

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Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of 14 aphid species on gymnosperm trees. The most frequent conifer species was: Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold 1785 (21 locations) followed by Pinus sylvestris L.1753, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. (4 locations), Juniperus communis L. 1753 (3 locations) and Juniperus virginiana L. 1753 (1 location), Thuja occidentalis L.1753 (2 locations), Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (1 location).

Eulachnus agilis (Kaltenbach, 1843) was the most frequently collected aphid species on Pinus nigra, followed by Cinara brauni Börner, 1940, Cinara schimitscheki Börner, 1940, Eulachnus rileyi (Williams, 1911) and Cinara acutirostris Hille Ris Lambers, 1956. The less frequent Cinara species was Cinara piniphila (Ratzeburg, 1844) which is a new record for the Hungarian fauna. Pinus sylvestris accommodated three aphid species: Cinara intermedia Pašek, 1954 was the most frequent, followed by Cinara pinea (Mordvilko, 1895) and Eulachnus agilis. Picea abies accommodated Cinara piceae, Cinara pruinosa (Hartig, 1841), Cinara piceicola (Cholodkovsky, 1896) and Sacchiphantes abietis L. 1758. Juniperus communis and J. virginiana most frequently hosted Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773). Eulachnus agilis occurred once on Juniperus communis. A single aphid species Cinara tujafilina was found on Thuja occidentalis and Thuja plicata.

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Survey of aphids on dicotyledonous herbaceous plants along the Hungarian highways on 33 sampling points revealed the presence of aphid infestation on Artemisia vulgaris L. in 4 locations. Macrosiphoniella artemisiae (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1841) colonies were present on the youngest parts of the shoots each place. On one of the locations the gall forming Cryptosiphum artemisiae Buckton, 1789 was present. Gall containing shoots of the mugwort were collected to rear aphid nymphs to adult. On these shoots the overlooked Brachycaudus cardui Linnaeus, 1758 individuals developed into apterae. Artemisia absinthium L. was present on one location. This plant accommodated Macrosiphoniella absinthii (Linnaeus, 1758).

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Flour from grains originating from plants infected artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. Wheat plants were caged at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1 % methyl parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5 aptera individuals of Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi . It was found that aphid infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae infection followed by R. padi at high-abundance. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may be suggested, that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of wheat flour.

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Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the helper component protease (HC-Pro) and the coat protein (CP) of two Hungarian Potato virus Y (PVY) isolates, differing in aphid transmissibility were determined. Isolate PVY-5 belongs to the common “O” strain (PVY O ), whereas isolates PVY-98 and PVY-111 belong to the “N” (PVY N ) and the PVY-NTN and PVY-H to the “NTN” (PVY NTN ) strains, respectively. The PVY-5 isolate varied significantly from the others in aphid transmission and in the ability to systemically infect potato plants. To elucidate whether these differences were due to mutations affecting known functional motifs, the corresponding cistrons of the two proteins were sequenced and aligned. Our analysis showed that none of the well-known motifs, responsible for aphid transmission in the two proteins had been affected. However, the defective isolate had two natural mutations in the HC-Pro in the vicinity of the PTK motif, and a number of mutations in the CP, distributed both in the N-terminus and the central region. As these two proteins are the only known viral participants in the aphid transmission mechanism, it is likely that some of the observed mutations might be involved in this process. Thus, our results indicate that other, previously unidentified sequences or factors may influence virus-vector interactions and transmission of PVY.

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The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein (CP) gene and the 3' non-translated region, in relation to aphid transmission of 7 potato tuber necrotic ringspot isolates of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) were studied. Five isolates originated from different areas of potato fields in Hungary and two German isolates served as controls. A 5' tail of the nucleotide sequences of the CP region and 3' non-translated region (NTR) were determined. Sequence data were sent to the EMBL GeneBank Database. Homology of nucleotide and amino acid sequences were high among the studied PVY isolates. According to the characteristic regions, all isolates belonged to the PVYNTN strain. All of the tested isolates could be transmitted by the aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer to the test plant Nicotiana tabacum L. verifying the wide distribution of tuber necrotic ringspot strain in Hungary. Our data suggest that the high homology found in the CP region of the different isolates, are suitable for development of coat protein mediated resistance against PVY in commercially important host plants like, e.g. potato.

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