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Sensory profiles of commercial coffee substitutes were determined and their possible interdependences with antioxidant characteristics (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, and CUPRAC), total polyphenol content, and colour were investigated and compared to coffees. Statistically relevant relations were revealed between certain sensory attributes, colour, and antioxidant capacity.

Sensory attributes show distinct patterns for coffees, their blends, and substitutes, but no significant differences between substitutes from different raw materials were found, except for chicory. Although coffees have generally higher antioxidant capacities than their substitutes, these latter, especially chicory-based products, are also valuable antioxidant sources, as only half of them had significantly lower polyphenol and antioxidant contents when compared to coffee.

Principal component analysis was applied to reveal possible differentiation pattern between samples, based on both their sensory and antioxidant attributes.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Bodor, Cs. Benedek, T. Kaszab, J.-L. Zinia Zaukuu, I. Kertész, and Z. Kovacs

Honey is produced by honeybees from nectar, sap of plant parts, or the juicy material secreted by sucking insects living on trees. It is rich in nutritionally useful components, the occurrence of which highly depends on the botanical and geographical origin of honey. Our goal is to develop a new, rapid, and accurate combination of analytical methods for identification of botanical and geographical origin.

Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, and ash content), colour (L*a*b*), and antioxidant properties were determined in addition to correlative techniques, such as electronic tongue and near infrared spectroscopy. For the statistical evaluation ANOVA, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis were applied.

Results showed significant differences (P<0.05) in physicochemical properties, colour, and antioxidant capacity according to the botanical origin of honeys. Electronic tongue (ET) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) techniques were useful in the identification of the botanical and geographical origin, showing generally good accuracy.

The physicochemical parameters are important and can serve as reference methods, completing NIR and ET as target techniques, which are promising, but need further improvement for the determination of honey origin.

Open access

The afferent arteriole (AA) is an important regulatory site of renal function and blood pressure. We have demonstrated endothelial fenestration and high permeability in the vicinity of renin granulated epithelioid cells in the juxtaglomerular portion of the afferent arteriole in different mammals. The permeability of fenestrated endothelium of afferent arteriole may be important in connection to various physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. We have assumed that the permeable fenestration may serve as a communication channel between the intravascular circulation and a pathway for renin secretion. Utilising the multiphoton image technique we were able to visualise the endothelial fenestration and renin granules of the in vitro microperfused AA and in vivo AA. We demonstrated that ferritin-positive, i.e., permeable portion of the afferent arteriole, under control conditions is on average 45 μm, which is about one-third to half of the total length of the afferent arteriole. The length of this portion is not constant and can change by physiologic and pharmacologic manipulation of renin formation. The permeability of the afferent arteriole is not changing only parallel with the pharmacologically stimulated renin secretion as already demonstrated in adult rats, but also with the change of renin appearance in afferent arteriole within the very first few days of life after birth. Independently from the age there is a significant correlation between the renin-positive and permeable portion of the AA. Further studies are necessary to clarify the physiological significance of afferent arteriolar permeability and its changes in the postnatal development of the kidney, as well as in correlation with activity of renin- angiotensin system.

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