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  • Author or Editor: Zs. Erős-Honti x
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Ganoderma is a worldwide distributed genus of polyporoid fungi causing white-rot. The sporocarps of these species are popular drug in the traditional medicine of the Far East. Although several species are proven to contain chemicals of different biological activities, only Ganoderma lucidum is cultivated on the large scale. It is an important goal of mushroom growing to involve genetically diverse strains in this field of industry (e.g. for Agaricus, Pleurotus), thus the range of cultivated Ganoderma species should also be broadened in the future. Within the Carpathian Basin, we have the possibility to isolate strains from 6 species beside G. lucidum: G. adspersum, G. applanatum (syn. G. lipsiense), G. carnosum (syn. G. atkinsonii), G. cupreolaccatum (G. pfeifferi), G. resinaceum and G. valesiacum. In the present review, by describing the taxonomical status and the ecological characteristic of the species, we depict the biological background of the medicinal potential, as well as the cultivation possibilities (both sporocarp production and liquid mycelia cultures) of these species.

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In spite, that Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. is one of the most serious fungal disease in apple orchards and it has been studied from numerous points of view, few studies examined the anatomical differences between scab resistant (Vf cultivars) and susceptible apple cultivars. We have investigated the possible anatomical background of the resistance or susceptibility against apple scab in gradually decaying fallen apple leaves. Specific differences were observed in the process of leaf degradation and in the structure of leaf tissues of each cultivar. The epidermis and the cuticle have continually become thinner during leaf degradation in the leaves of two resistant cultivars, while great deformations were observed in the leaf tissues of the susceptible cultivars caused by the hyphae in the mesophyllum and subcuticular stromas. When comparing the non-infected parts of susceptible leaves with those of the resistant cultivars, we documented earlier disintegration of the parenchyma and declined cohesion between the tissue elements. Fungal hyphae appeared on each cultivar but subcuticular stromas developed and hyphae could break through the epidermis and get into mesophyllum only in susceptible leaves. We have discovered calcium oxalate crystals in the mesophyllum of the leaves of each cultivars, that seems to be a general feature of apple leaves, which was not documented previously.

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