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The species-specific PCR assays correctly identified pure cultures of Fusarium acuminatum (3 isolates), F. avenaceum (22 isolates), F. poae (13 isolates), and F. sporotrichioides (6 isolates) originated from Hungarian wheat grain.The PCR-based assays described in this study can be used for the routine detection and identification of above-mentioned Fusaria without morphological determination.

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Species-specific PCR assay was used for the identification of Hungarian Fusarium graminearum isolates in pure mycelial culture. The Fg16F/Fg16R primer pair of the three known species-specific primers appeared to be the most appropriate one to identify F. graminearum .Two methods were used for comparative determination of the amplicon size of F. graminearum strains: traditional agarose gel electrophoresis, and chip electrophoresis. Our results have shown that the chip electrophoresis is an easy-to-use, time-efficient substitute for conventional agarose gel electrophoresis; moreover it provides a more precise size determination of amplicons. Amplicon size ranging from 415 bp to 421 bp in tested isolates may be associated with genetic diversity in the Hungarian population of F. graminearum .The PCR assay described in this study can be used for the routine detection and identification of F. graminearum without isolation and morphological investigation of this fungus.

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Enniatins (ENs), produced by Fusarium species are a group of mycotoxins with antimicrobial, insecticidal (GROVE & POPLE, 1980) and phytotoxic activities. PCR based assays were applied for detecting enniatin-producing strains of Fusarium avenaceum, F. poae and F. sporotrichioides isolated from wheat seeds originated of 30 geographic localities of Hungary. All F. sporotrichoides strains and except two of all F. poae strains gave positive signal to esysp1 and esysp2 primers as well as all F. avenaceum isolates were positive to esya1 and esya2 primers indicating the ability to produce ENs. This is a first report of the enniatin producing ability of Fusarium species associated to wheat in Hungary.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: G. Koncz, Mária Papp, P. Török, Zs. Kotroczó, Zs. Krakomperger, G. Matus, and B. Tóthmérész

We studied the potential role of seed bank in the dynamics of the understorey in a turkey oak-sessile oak forest (Querceteum petraeae-cerris) in Hungary. We used long-term records of the herb layer (1973–2006) and the seed bank composition of 2006 to assess the role of seed bank in the regeneration of herb layer. The total cover of herb layer decreased from 22% (1973) to 6% (1988), and remained low (<10%) till 2006; coinciding with the increasing cover of secondary canopy dominated by Acer campestre. We found a low density seed bank (ca. 1300 seeds/m2). Altogether 33 species were germinated from the soil samples. A few generalist weed species composed the majority of seed bank. It was possible to assign a seed bank type for 19 species; 14 species out of 19 was long-term persistent. We found that the characteristic perennial forest herbs and grasses had only sparse seed bank. The Jaccard similarity between vegetation and seed bank was low (<30%). Our results suggest that the continuous establishment of forest herbs are not based on local persistent seed bank; it should be based on vegetative spreading and/or seed rain.

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