The lack of interpretation methods capable of examining the aroma-profiles of spicy and medicinal plants and other samples of food origin (wines, honeys, fruits, fruit-distillates) makes necessary a thorough investigation of the relating evaluation procedures. By adding three appropriate hydrocarbon standards to all sample extracts, and measuring the programmed temperature retention indices of the components and normalizing the peak areas to that of the compound corresponding to the most intense chromatographic peak, a visualization of the aroma characteristics could be achieved. The relationship or identity of aroma patterns could be deduced from the presence or absence of similar polygons in the ihconstellation-mapsl. of the components.
Comparison of Hungarianground red paprika volatiles of known origin (identical to cultivated varietiesgrown in Kalocsa, Hungary) and provenance has been performed following simultaneous distillation-extraction sample preparation. After polar phase capillary gas-chromatography, mass spectrometric identification of as many compounds as possible was carried out to precisely describe the aroma profile of the cultivars. For conceptualizing the results a data evaluation and interpretation method has been elaborated considering the component ratios that are much more characteristic of the cultivars than the absolute amounts themselves. Relative intensity interpretation of the peak areas (y-axis) and Programmed Temperature Retention Index (x-axis) measurement resulted in aromagrams individually characteristic of the cultivated varieties. In an identification experiment the cultivars have been recognized successfully by the graphic visualization of the results called aroma-spectra (by analogy to mass spectrometry) method.
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of homemade beef sausages by examining the amino acid, biogenic amine, and fatty acid composition. The most abundant amino acids were Ala (15.56%), Leu (13.28%), Gly (8.64%), Pro (8.41%), Ser (8.26%), and Val (7.65%). The essential amino acids accounted for 44.30% of total amino acids. Apart from the protein building amino acids, the free amino acid content was relatively high, accounting for 10% of total amino acid content. The average biogenic amine concentration in the sausage samples was low (1.69 mg kg−1). Saturated fatty acids accounted for 59.10% of total fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated (38.63%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.27%). The fatty acid profile was dominated by oleic (C18:1, 34.37%) and palmitic (C16:0, 30.24%) acids, and short-chain fatty acids were also present, which may have a positive impact on gut health. The results show that beef sausages have a high nutritional value and are a good source of essential amino acids, free amino acids, and fatty acids that are important for human health.
Increasing the protein and antioxidant content of food products is a constant challenge amongst researchers. Dried pasta products are popular amongst all groups of society. The most important factor in pasta processing is the quality of the flour. Millet (Panicum miliaceum) flour has high nutritional value, enriching it with cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) flour is good choice to increase the quality of protein composition and antioxidant properties of products. Flour mixtures of millet and insect flours (5% and 10%) were analysed after mixing and pasta processing. Addition of wheat gluten improved both texture and nutrition value of pasta products. Total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, total protein content, free and total amino acid composition were studied. Quality analysis of dried pasta products were carried out according to Hungarian standards. Data was analysed with Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's pair-wise post hoc test was used with Bonferroni correction. The correlation was determined by Spearman's rank. Addition of cricket flour modified the pH, acid value, moisture content, and colour of the samples, these changes lasted during storage. Enrichment could increase the total phenol content significantly even at the low level of 10%. Heat treatment during pasta processing had negative effect on the antioxidant capacity except at higher cricket flour contents. Cricket flour's high protein content proportionately increased millet flour's, thus pasta products'. Dried pasta products passed all quality norms. Enrichment of millet flour with cricket flour is favourable from both nutritional and quality aspects.
To our knowledge, there is a lack of information on the nutrient composition of Busha cattle milk with special regard to its amino acid and biogenic amine contents. The Busha cattle breed is known to be highly resistant to various diseases and well-adapted to the extensive breeding conditions of the Balkan Peninsula. Busha cow milk contains an average of 13.47% dry matter, 4.34% fat, 3.72 % protein, and 4.32% lactose. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) in the amino acid compositions of the milk of different Busha cattle strains of Kosovo. Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, and valine represented 68% of the total amino acid content. Essential amino acids, branched-chain and sulphur-containing amino acids were found in substantial amounts in the milk samples. Among the biogenic amines, however, spermine (0.16 mg kg−1) and cadaverine (0.09 mg kg−1) were present in low concentrations. Due to these excellent qualities of the Busha cow milk, preservation of this cattle breed is of great importance. Developing sustainable and secured breeding and feeding programs for this endangered cattle breed of the Balkan Peninsula should also be a high priority.