From the cultural point of view, the Carpathian Basin resembled a mosaic during the circa 500 years of the Middle Bronze Age. Despite the fact that every community developed a specific material culture we still may speak about a so-called “tell society” in this period based on social and economical macro features. This is specific type of habitat in the region under study and the major part of the great Hungarian Plain, where a “cultural complex” characterized by the homogeneity of pottery and bronze metallurgy developed during the Middle Bronze Age.In the last decades, the problematic of the metallurgy of the Otomani communities became the subject of several archaeological studies written by Romanian scholars like Ivan Ordentlich, Nicolae Chidioşan, Tiberius Bader, Alexandru Vulpe etc. and colleagues from other countries too. Despite the undertaken research and the fact that the study of metallurgy was popular among Bronze Age scholars, a proper typological and chronological analysis of the discovered artefacts according to the latest archaeological data was still needed to be done. In our opinion, the key of understanding the Otomani culture’s problematic is represented by the proper knowledge of the archaeological material which provides a firm foundation for the study of the social complexity of the Bronze Age policy.The aim of the present paper is to sketch a picture about the Otomani culture’s metalworking and debate some typological and chronological issues linked with the bronze artefacts discovered in the Carei Plain and the valley of the Eriul River. Fifty-nine bronze items were discovered during our investigations in the Carei Plain and the valley of the Eriul River, which could be dated from the 2nd and 3rd phases of the Otomani culture. 44% of the finds are weapons, 25% are tools, 28% are pieces of jewellery and 3% are specimens linked with metallurgical processes (casting moulds, bronze ingot etc.). Through the reinterpretation of the archaeological evidences, we have sketched a more accurate picture of the bronze working and metallurgical activity of the Otomani communities.
The current Hungarian standard for the determination of egg content in dried pastas does not fulfil its purpose because of the possibly high relative deviation of parallel measurements (up to 60%) therefore a new GC-FID-based method was developed. The method uses cholesterol as marker of the egg content, prescribes an extraction with ethyl-acetate, derivatization with bis-trimethylsilyl-trifl uoroacetamid (BSTFA), GC separation, and FID detection. A tight correlation between egg and cholesterol contents was found, 94 mg cholesterol in 1 kg pasta per egg. The RSD of the measurements was 5%, limit of detection was found to be 0.1 mg l−1 cholesterol, and limit of quantification was 0.47 mg l−1. For the determination of egg content a reference chart was created with the use of control materials containing exactly 1, 4 and 8 eggs in 1 kg of dried pasta, respectively. The reference chart was verified with a control sample of 4.4 eggs, proving the table to be fit for purpose. The method was also tested on commercially available unknown pasta samples and it was found that not all samples contained the declared amount of eggs.
Authors:Zs. Révay, G. Molnár, T. Belgya, Zs. Kasztovszky and R. Firestone
New measurements have been performed at the PGAA facility at the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) in order to create a prompt -ray catalog for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The measured spectra were accurately analyzed by HYPERMET-PC. Prompt -ray energies and associated -ray production cross-sections have been determined by internal standardization. The resulting catalog contains prompt -ray data from neutron capture and other reactions such as (n,), and decay -ray data from short-lived reaction products. Data have been measured for nearly all stable elements, from hydrogen to uranium. Generally, data for several isotopes are given, to enable isotopic analysis as well. The whole library, including elemental spectra, will be available as a book.
Authors:Zs. Révay, G. Molnár, T. Belgya and Zs. Kasztovszky
The prompt -activation analysis (PGAA) facility at Budapest Research Reactor offers a unique possibility to perform in-beam measurements. Several k0 factors for decay -lines of short-lived nuclides have been determined accurately by means of in-beam activation. The present values compare well with literature data. New k0 factors are proposed for 24mNa and 60mCo.
Authors:Zs. Kasztovszky, Zs. Révay, T. Belgya and G. Molnár
Since 1996 several applications of prompt gamma activation analysis have been performed at the new Budapest PGAA facility. This paper deals with the investigation of metal objects. We report the results of nondestructive detection of H in amorphous metals, multielement analysis of Roman bronze brooches and measurement of silver concentration in Hungarian coins.
Authors:Zs. Révay, G. Molnár, T. Belgya, Zs. Kasztovszky and R. Firestone
A major obstacle to the use of the prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) method has so far been the lack of a suitable library. Therefore, new measurements have been performed at the PGAA facility at Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) in order to create a prompt -ray catalog for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Prompt -ray energies and associated k0-factors have been determined by internal standardization. The resulting catalog contains prompt -ray data from neutron capture and other reactions such as (n,), and decay -ray data from short-lived reaction products. Data have been measured for nearly all stable elements, from hydrogen to uranium. Generally, data for several isotopes are given, to enable isotopic analysis as well.
Authors:Sz. Osváth, N. Vajda, Zs. Molnár, É. Széles and Zs. Stefánka
The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear fuel cycle can be regarded as “difficult-to-measure” nuclides,
hence chemical separation is needed before the nuclear measurement of them. A combined radiochemical procedure that enables
the simultaneous determination of some “difficult-to-measure” nuclides in medium and low level radioactive wastes has been
developed in our laboratory. Recently, this method has been extended for determination of 237Np and 93Zr. 237Np and 93Zr are pre-concentrated by co-precipitation on iron(II) hydroxide and zirconium oxide, separated by extraction chromatography
using UTEVA, and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As even traces of polyatomic ions and
isotopes at m/z 237 or 93 cause considerable interferences during ICP-MS detection, a purification step by extraction chromatography
was needed. Analyzing real samples (evaporation concentrates of a nuclear power plant) 66–99% and 31–99% chemical yields were
achieved for Np and Zr, respectively.
Authors:Sz. Osváth, N. Vajda, Zs. Stefánka, É. Széles and Zs. Molnár
A combined radioanalytical method for determination of 93Zr and 237Np (as well as other actinoids) in radioactive wastes has been developed. Analytes were co-precipitated on iron(II)-hydroxide,
separated and purified on UTEVA columns, and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. According to Zr and
Np, 65 and 75% yields were achieved, respectively.
Effective conservation of (semi-)natural grasslands requires an understanding of the factors affecting naturalness (i.e. the actual quality of a habitat or vegetation patch) and the importance of the particular factors. Both local or patch and landscape or matrix variables affect habitat quality, and the proportions of the effects need to be identified. Therefore, we performed a hypothesis generating and testing analysis with generalised linear models on three typical grassland habitat types (forest steppe meadows,
alkali steppes, and lowland wet meadows), differing in their fragmentation, ecology and history, and representing characteristic types of grassland habitats with the use of the national database of the vegetation of Hungary (MÉTA). Our results, in general, show that naturalness depends upon both intra-habitat and matrix attributes: presence or proportion of other habitat types in the surrounding landscape, threatening factors and landscape ecological attributes. Higher number of habitat types and higher proportions of (semi-)natural habitats in the landscape have significant effects: presence of other grassland types similar in ecological demands to the model habitat positively affect the naturalness, while non-characteristic, secondary or disturbed habitats and invasive alien species have negative effects. However, there are clear differences among the three habitat types, indicating that for effective conservation, good knowledge of conserved habitat types is essential. Landscape or matrix factors, both compositional and structural, affecting habitat patch quality have significant effects that cannot be overlooked. In the case of fragmented grasslands, matrix factors might be even more important than patch or local factors.
Due to the global land use and climate change, endangerment of natural vegetation is increasing. That is why the threatening factors were documented in details during the MÉTA mapping. We have documented the impacts of water management, land use (management of woodlands and grasslands), the invasive species, urbanisation, habitat fragmentation and the neighbourhood, as well. In the present article (1) we evaluate the actual state of the habitats by the 28 threat types documented during the MÉTA mapping; (2) we introduce 12 newly developed indicators, which were applied for the semi-quantitative comparison of the overall degree of endangerment of the Hungarian habitats.Based on the summarisation of our results the most seriously endangered habitats in Hungary are as follows: sand and loess steppe oak woodlands (M2, M4, L2x), tussock sedge communities (B4), extensive orchards (P7), closed lowland oak woodlands (L5, L6), water-fringing and fen tall herb communities (D5), wooded pastures (P45), vegetation of loess cliffs (I2), rich fens and
meadows (D1, D2), Cynosurion grasslands and
swards (E34), swamp woodlands (J2), xero-mesophilous grasslands (H4) and salt steppe oak woodlands (M3).The least endangered types are the rocky habitats (I4, LY3, H1, G2, M7), certain halophytic (F1a, F5, F1b, F2, B6) and aquatic habitats (A23, A3a, A1), open acidophilous woodlands (L4b), dry shrub vegetation with
(P2b) and the beech woodlands (K5).