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The pot experiment - carried out in 2000 under greenhouse conditions - was set up with seven soils differing in Cd and Pb contents and three test plants ( Lolium perenne L. cv. Georgikon), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. cv. Balatonzöld) and white mustard ( Sinapis alba L. cv. Sirola) with four replicates. From the seven experimental soils five samples (S1-S5) were collected from agricultural areas (arable sites) and two (S6-S7) from spoil-earth, with extremely high Cd and Pb contents.  The pots, each containing 1 kg air-dry soil, were kept at constant soil moisture (60% of maximum water capacity of the experimental soils) by daily watering, while pots were watered to weight once weekly. Before sowing the test plants: 50-50-50 mg N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O was applied to the experimental soils to maintain the same nutrient supply. The above-soil plant parts were cut after four weeks. Fresh and dry weights of plants were determined after harvest. The aim of the experiment was to obtain results of Cd and Pb uptake by different plant species in relation to the heavy metal content and different characteristics of soils. The following conclusions were drawn: No definite correlation was found between the biomass production of the three test plants and the heavy metal content of the soils at early growth stage. The heavy metal concentration range in the soils and plants differed. In the case of Pb the soil concentration interval was broader than that of the plants'. The opposite was observed for Cd, where the plants had a wider concentration interval. Comparing the Pb and Cd concentrations of above-ground plant parts, Pb concentrations varied in a narrower interval. The maximum values of Pb content exceeded the Cd content levels, although the mobility of Pb in the soil-plant system is significantly lower. The comparison of Cd and Pb concentrations of plants and soils proved these differences. The Cd concentration of plants was 8-231% of the total Cd content of soils. The Pb concentration of plants was the 0.8-28% of the total Pb content of the soils, respectively. Comparing the three plants in respect of Cd concentrations the order found was as follows: ryegrass < white mustard < lettuce. In case of Pb, the order depended on the Pb content level (lower or higher) of the experimental soil. Symptoms of phytotoxicity were observed only on lettuce plants grown on the contaminated soils (S6, S7).

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A new nuclear excitation process,99Tc (, )99mTc reaction, was applied for the first time to radioactivation analysis of technetium. Bremsstrahlung irradiation of99Tc samples gave the reaction product99mTc which emits -ray measurable with ease by a semiconductor detector. The production rate of99mTc per g99Tc was linearly correlated with the flux of bremsstrahlung. The detection limit of99Tc was estimated to be nanogram order (0.63 Bq99Tc) under the optimum irradiation condition. Possible interference by100Ru(, p)99mTc reaction was also studied, which could be discriminated from the (, ) reaction by simultaneously occurring98Ru (, p)97Ru reaction.

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Remote screening for retinopathy of prematurity by wide-field digital imaging and network telemedicine is increasingly used to prevent blindness without the unnecessary transport of infants. Our purpose was to train and license dedicated neonatal transport nurses to do this in Hungary.

Materials and methods

We developed a complex, four-step curriculum in mobile retinotelemetry. Using a robust selection process, we invited eight transport nurses (NtNP/RtN) to receive training during the 2008–2017 project. The curriculum started with the basics of ophthalmology. Using an artificial eye, it continued with the theory and practice of ophthalmologic exams. Then, supervised by an ophthalmologist, each nurse performed 50 video recordings of anaesthetized and non-anaesthetized infants.


After demonstrating their competence, five of the eight candidate nurses received a license for retinotelemetry. During their subsequent practice, they had to undergo case reviews half-yearly by a specialist and renew their license every 2–3 years. During the 2008–2016 period, we analysed 7,177 remote screenings from a training perspective. During January 1–August 31 in 2017 period, we analysed extra data from 795 remote screenings of 332 infants from specific prevention perspectives.


With the cooperation of preexisting neonatal transport service and the ophthalmological reading centre of a university hospital, a mobile telemedicine screening network was successfully developed in Hungary. Our results demonstrate how retinotelemetry can support different levels of prevention medicine. The network should work effectively and efficiently with continuous professional development.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: M. Szilágyi, Zs. I. Németh, L. Albert, P. Sarlós, and E. Tyihák

On the basis of recent observations it is supposed that seminal fluids may contain - mainly in hydroxymethyl groups - formaldehyde (HCHO) and quaternary ammonium compounds as potential HCHO generators, therefore, preliminary investigations were carried out for the identification of these compounds in pig seminal fluids using OPLC, HPLC and MALDI MS techniques. The fresh pig seminal fluid was frozen in liquid nitrogen, powdered and aliquots (0.25 g) were treated with 0.7 ml ethanolic dimedone solution. The suspension was centrifuged and the clear supernatant was used for analysis by OPLC or after dilution with HPLC or MALDI MS technique. After OPLC separation of formaldemethone the fully N-methylated compounds which are stayed on the start point were separated by OPLC using an other eluent system. It has been established that the HCHO is really a normal component of the pig seminal fluid, as well. It can be isolated and identified in dimedone adduct form. The measurable amount of HCHO depended on the concentration applied of dimedone. According to OPLC and MALDI MS investigations L-carnitine is the main quaternary ammonium compound in pig seminal fluid which can generate a protection of the sperm cells against environmental and other influences. Considerable differences have been found among individuals concerning concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in the seminal fluid of pigs.

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The Biofragmentable Anastomosis Ring (BAR) is a mechanical device composed of absorbable material and creates an inverting, atraumatic compressive anastomosis with no foreign material at the anastomotic site after healing. The aim of the present experimental study was to assess the safety of oesophagoscopy in early days after oesophageal anastomoses performed with the BAR and to follow-up the healing of BAR anastomoses by in vivo endoscopy and autopsy examination. Thirty mongrel dogs divided into subgroups according to the timepoints of endoscopy and autopsy (4th, 7th, 14th, 28th day) were used. There was no significant difference in the healing of anastomoses performed under or above the tracheal bifurcation. Pleural adhesions helped to cover and seal small subclinical leaks. The mortality was 13.3% (4 dogs) and the overall leakage rate 14.3%. We looked for bleeding, haematoma, erosion, ulceration and granulation tissue in the anastomosis. Due to the high mechanical strength of these anastomoses, oesophagoscopy was a safe, easy and feasible method for follow-up BAR intrathoracic anastomoses, with no significant difference between the number of lesions found with endoscopy as compared to the autopsy data. The overall sensitivity of oesophagoscopy to discover mucosal lesions was 73.1%. Endoscopy had no complications, therefore it is a useful method of follow-up and may help predict the normal or compromised healing of oesophageal anastomoses.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Szabó, Zs. Németh, É. Polyák, I. Bátai, M. Kerényi, and M. Figler

Sprouts contain minerals, vitamins, and other compounds, which may have antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial compounds are released from homogenized sprouts and diffuse into the culture medium inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These antibacterial compounds may influence the multiplication of contaminating pathogens. In this study the antimicrobial effects of 55 different homogenized sprouts were investigated with agar well diffusion method on human pathogenic bacteria. Homogenizates of different radish, early kohlrabi, and red cabbage sprouts caused inhibitory zone around the wells on the surface of inoculated agar plates. Mustard, zucchini, medical (German) chamomile, spicy fenugreek, and adzuki bean sprouts had antimicrobial effect only against a few human pathogenic bacteria. Twenty-nine other spicy and vegetable sprouts had no antibacterial activity against the investigated human pathogens. The results suggest that a few sprouts have antimicrobial properties, but different cultivars of the same species have different effects against different bacterial strains. The sprouts of radish cultivars contained the most effective antibacterial compounds.

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Oregano is used worldwide both as spice and crude drug, which is mainly provided by species of Origanum genus. The quality of the product is usually determined by chemical analysis, whereas in food industrial applications sensory tests are also practised. The aim of the present study was a comparison of parallel quality investigations of oregano samples by a new and effective instrumental sensory evaluation method, the “electronic nose”, and by gas-chromatographic and human sensory analysis. The GC analysis of essential oil components revealed mainly differences between plant species (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum and Origanum majorana). Main components of the oil of the former taxon are carvacrol and thymol, while those of marjoram are terpinene-4-ol, ?-terpinene and terpinolene. A wholesale oregano sample showing considerable divergence from the other ones with respect to ratios of carvacrol, ß-caryophyllene ß-cubebene and thymol. It was assumed not to belong to ssp. hirtum. The electronic nose analysis, evaluated by PCA, proved to be an appropriate, rapid, non-destructive, reagent-less method for the reliable separation of all of the oregano samples based on their complex aroma features. Assumptions could be made about correlations between separation of samples by the instrumental sensors and proportions of terpenoid compounds of the oil established by GC in some cases only. The varying essential oil content of the samples did not influence the success of instrumental evaluation. The instrumental and human sensory analysis showed similar results: varieties of O. majorana could be well distinguished on the basis of their complex aroma, while their gas-chromatograms did not show characteristic differences. The results call the attention that quality evaluation of drug items of aromatic plants should be oriented in different directions, considering the current utilisation area of the items. 

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Mouwakeh, P. Radácsi, ZS. Pluhár, É. Németh Zámboriné, G. Muránszky, CS. Mohácsi-Farkas, and G. Kiskó

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin) is well known for its benefits in the field of traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and investigate the antimicrobial activity of cold pressed oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) of Nigella sativa L. on food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. The microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Nigella sativa crude oil (CO) and essential oil (EO) against 4 Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and 3 Gram-negative (Salmonella Hartford, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli) foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria occurring in food products. Total fatty acid composition of CO was analysed by GLC, while the EO was analysed by GC-MS to detect its active compounds. The results showed that the major fatty acid of CO was palmitic acid (C16:0), as saturated fatty acid, however, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the main unsaturated fatty acid. The major compounds of the EO were p-cymene and thymoquinone. The inhibition on all tested bacteria of EO was 10 times higher than of CO, and the lowest concentration value was observed in case of Bacillus subtilis (0.003%). Hence, results reinforce the ambition to apply Nigella sativa oils in food as natural preservative.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: J. Adams, L. Difazio, R. Rolandelli, J. Luján, Gy Haskó, B. Csóka, Zs Selmeczy, and Z. Németh

The transcription factor HIF-1 is one of the principal mediators of homeostasis in human tissues exposed to hypoxia. It is implicated in virtually every process of rapid gene expression in response to low oxygen levels. The most common causes of tissue hypoxia are inflammation and/or insufficient circulation or a combination of both. Inflamed tissues and the areas surrounding malignant tumors are characterized by hypoxia and low concentrations of glucose. Serious and generalized inflammation can lead to sepsis and circulatory collapse resulting in acute or chronic tissue hypoxia in various vital organs which induces a rapid homeostatic process in all nucleated cells of affected organs in the human body. Under hypoxic conditions the alpha and beta subunits of HIF-1 make an active heterodimer and drive the transcription of over 60 genes important for cell survival, adaptation, anaerobic metabolism, immune reaction, cytokine production, vascularization and general tissue homeostasis. In addition, HIF-1 plays a key role in the development of physiological systems in fetal and postnatal life. It is also a critical mediator of cancer, lung and cardiovascular diseases. The better understanding of the functions of HIF-1 and the pharmacological modulation of its activity could mean a successful therapeutic approach to these diseases.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: A. Doros, B. Nemes, Z. Máthé, A. Németh, E. Hartmann, Á. P. Deák, Zs. F. Lénárd, D. Görög, I. Fehérvári, Zs. Gerlei, J. Fazakas, Sz. Tóth, and L. Kóbori



Hepatic artery complication represents recognized sequel of liver transplantation that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Besides retransplantation, hepatic artery recanalization is provided surgically, or by percutaneous angioplasty and stent placement. This study provides an analysis of a single center experience comparing surgical and interventional treatments in cases of early hepatic artery complications.


In this retrospective single center study, 25 of 365 liver transplant recipients were enrolled who developed early hepatic artery complication after transplantation. Percutaneous intervention was performed in 10 cases, while surgical therapy in 15 cases. Mean follow-up time was not different between the groups (505±377 vs. 706±940 days, respectively).


6 patients in the Intervention Group and 10 patients in the Surgery Group are alive. The retransplantation rate (1 and 3) was lower after interventional procedures, while the development of biliary complications was higher. The mortality rate was higher after operative treatment (2 and 5).


Interventional therapy is a feasible and safe technique for treatment of early hepatic artery complication after transplantation. Being less invasive it is an invaluable alternative treatment having results comparable to surgical methods.

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