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GIS adaptation and digital reambulation of large-scale soil information originating from various agrogeological surveys has become a key issue in Hungary due the recent challenges. The national programme initiated by L. Kreybig for the systematic, 1:25,000 scale practical soil mapping of Hungary was carried out between 1935 and 1951, and provided detailed soil information (1:25,000 scale maps and complementary database in the form of explanatory booklets) for the whole country. Later farm level (1:10,000 scale) soil surveys fulfilled the practical requirements of Hungarian agriculture, producing a huge quantity of map based, soil related data. These archives still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at present. Their digital reambulation and GIS adaptation is a challenging task, which was initiated by RISSAC GIS Lab in co-operation with various institutions. The aim of these activities is the development of large-scale soil modules of a Hungarian production database for the determination of the optimal functions of agriculture in a given region, together with the harmonization of agricultural production and the protection of land and environment.

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EU’s Common Agricultural Policy encourages maintaining agricultural production in less favored areas (LFA) to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate, nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy dataset originating from the national soil mapping project, which was digitally processed and developed into the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS). In the paper we present how DKSIS was applied for the identification and delineation of areas in Hungary concerned by the common biophysical criteria related to soil. Soil data linked to soil profiles and SMUs were jointly spatially analyzed for the compilation of nationwide digital maps displaying spatial distribution of specific limiting factors.

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A key issue of the applicability of both traditional soil maps and soil information systems (SSISs) is their accuracy. Essentially, the main practical aim of soil surveys/mapping and spatial soil information is prediction. A traditional tool of this information extension is the classical (crisp) soil map (using soil mapping units), which generally constitute the geometric basis of SSISs, too. Numerous novel methods have been developed for producing more accurate soil maps, however traditional crisp soil maps are still extensively applied, as they offer the most easily interpretable results for the majority of users. On the other hand, accuracy of this kind of soil maps can be increased in several ways: with the refinement of soil contours; with the subdivision of mapping units taking into consideration smaller, within patch inhomogeneities; and with the refinement of attribute information (more recent data, more precise measurement, up-to-date methodology, more appropriate classification etc.). The GIS adaptation of soil information originating from the 1:25,000 scale practical soil mapping of Hungary is under construction. Compilation of the Kreybig Digital Soil Information System (KDSIS) involves both its integration within appropriate spatial data infrastructure and updating with efficient field correlation, which make an inherent refinement and upgrading of the system possible. The first attempts for the field-based updating of KDSIS have been done, using field GIS technology. Processes of desktop and field reambulation of the detailed, complex, national spatial soil information system are presented in this paper.

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The main objective of the (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.

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An attempt is outlined for the compilation of an integrated and harmonized stratified soil physical database serving hydrologic modeling, as the basis of estimating soil hydraulic parameters in the unsaturated zone. Due to the appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) and Hungarian Agrogeological Database (HAD) were chosen as pedological and agrogeological data sources for describing the soil physical properties in the unsaturated zone. The DKSIS contains legacy soil data (as hy, pH, salt, OM, CaCO 3 content, etc.) in finely stratified resolution (3–5 soil layers within 1.5–2.0 m), but lacks particle size data. HAD has a coarser stratification (8–15 layers within 8–10 m) with detailed particle size data. The five-cleft FAO texture classification can serve as an interface in their joint application. The particle size and hy data pairs from the existing Hungarian Soil Monitoring (TIM) network made it possible to define the relation between FAO texture class vs. hy value, and based on the HYPRES database each FAO texture class can be characterized by typical Mualem-van Genuchten parameter sets (Wösten et al., 1999). The compiled, harmonized database characterizes the distinguished soil and sediment layers – with a thickness of at least 10 cm – for a 690 km 2 large model area, describing their thickness and texture classes to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, in every single square kilometer cell of the model area. The compiled database is indispensable in the model simulation based analysis of regional water management problems like drought, flood and inland inundation.

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Diets other than those recommended by professionals, referred to in the present paper as “pseudo-diets”, can endanger the health of the people who follow them. It is therefore worth assessing why people begin such diets, the information they rely on, and the effects they experience.

Materials and Methods

We surveyed and compared people following two pseudo-diets: a ketogenic-like diet (KLD) and a vegan-like diet (VLD). The diets are defined as ketogenic and vegan by the dieters themselves. A cross-sectional study was carried out using self-developed anonymous online questionnaires. The survey participants were adults: 249 KLD and 203 VLD followers.


The majority (85.14%) of the KLD followers stated that their motivation was weight loss, while 56.16% of the VLD followers stated that they were primarily motivated by ethical considerations. Only 11.64% of the KLD followers and 33.99% of the VLD followers had sought professional help. Both the variety and frequency of the adverse effects were robust in the KLD group, while the VLD followers experienced primarily positive outcomes. We found a statistically significant association between the seeking of professional help and an increase in desirable effects in both groups, and a decrease in adverse effects in the VLD group.


The dieters used several information sources but only occasionally turned to professionals. Given that dietary changes can represent a significant intervention, professional monitoring is highly recommended to ensure that the diet is valid, effective, personalised and safe.

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